Producing And Sensory Examine The Biscuit Using Wheat Flour, Cassava Flour (Abacha Floor) And African Yam Bean Flour

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Producing And Sensory Examine The Biscuit Using Wheat Flour, Cassava Flour (Abacha Floor) And African Yam Bean Flour


Abstract


Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flours blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. Sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Scope / Limitations of the Study
  • 1.2 Significance of the Study
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Use of Composite Flour in Biscuit Making
  • 2.2 The Role of Biscuit in Supplementary and Emergency Feeding
  • 2.3 Wheat Flour in Biscuit Making (Definition)
  • 2.4 Nutritive Value of Wheat Flour
  • 2.5 Chemical Composition of Wheat Flour
  • 2.6 Origin of Wheat
  • 2.7 Health Benefit of Wheat
  • 2.8 Use of Wheat
  • 2.9 Limitations of Wheat
  • 2.10 Origin of African Yam Bean
  • 2.11 Nutritional Value of African Yam Bean
  • 2.12 Health Benefits of African Yam Bean
  • 2.13 Uses of African Yam Bean
  • 2.14 Limitations of African Yam Bean
  • 2.15 Proximate Composition of African Yam Bean
  • 2.16 Origin of Cassava
  • 2.17 Economic Importance of Cassava
  • 2.18 Uses of Cassava
  • 2.19 Nutritional Importance of Cassava
  • 2.20 Health Benefits of Cassava
  • 2.21 Limitation of Cassava
  • 2.22 Raw Materials for Biscuit Making
  • 2.23 Nutritional Value of Biscuit

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Recipes for the Production of Biscuits
  • 3.2 Formulation of Flour Blends
  • 3.3 Biscuit Production

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result of Sensory Evaluation

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

The African yam bean known as Odudu, Azama or Okpodudu by the Igbo’s belongs to the family Febaceae, which was formally classified under the sub-family Papillionoides (Anon, 1979). As a legume, it has an excellent supply of B-vitamins (Apata & Ologhobo, 1990). African yam beam will result in a more nutritious diet / snacks.


1.1 Scope / Limitations of the Study

It is anticipated that in carrying out a study of this nature, there are limitations involved in the study. The writer encouraged a lot of unforeseen problem due to limited time given, the writer was unable to gather enough and sufficient facts which are relevant to the study.

Secondly, there was financial problem. The writer was not able to buy some of the materials like Bakery pastry booklets, get in touch with Bakery industry managers, travel for some researches etc. the polytechnic library was not fully equipped of most relevant materials that would have assisted the writer.


1.2 Significant of the Study

Production of biscuit form wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour is used in every production sector of Bakery industry that specialized in Biscuit making.

The government ahs estimated that the average Nigeria that consumed biscuit everyday is approximately 5,500 millions in different location in the country. Biscuit is named as often, the fastest and cheapest food that sustains hungry easily, with increased technological capabilities. Bakery industry has extremely similar production and services that is characteristically without distinguishing the name of the product food substance.

In a nutshell, the study is important in the following areas: To the Researcher:

  1. It enables the researcher acquire knowledge on how biscuit can be produced from composite flour
  2. It enables the researcher acquire knowledge on different ways of using wheat, cassava and African yam bean flour in production of major pasting floured.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is therefore, to produce biscuit from various blends of wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean flour and to determine the sensory properties of the biscuit. Meanwhile, the acceptability of biscuit baked from the flours with a view to increasing the level of the wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour for biscuit production as this will lead to higher utilization of cassava thereby reducing post harvest losses.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This study indicates that biscuit with higher protein content can be produced from composite flour of wheat and African yam bean flour, as biscuit samples made from 80:10:10 and 70:15:15 African yam bean supplementation compared favorably with control (100% WF). The African yam bean flours could be used to fortify conventional flours which are low in protein and consumption of foods based on these African yam bean varieties would be an important step towards alleviating protein energy malnutrition in the developing counties. Furthermore biscuit production from wheat flour may be an answer to increase in consumption and utilization of this lesser known legume with the resultant effect of increased intake of quality protein, minerals and dietary fibre.


5.2 Recommendation

It therefore recommended that substitution of African yam beanflour and cassava flour at 80:10:10 and 70:15: 15 levels should be embarked upon by biscuit industries as this will help in conserving national foreign exchange and improving the national value of biscuit. More research should also be conducted on how higher percentage of composite flour such as 25,30,40,and even 50% can be used to produce biscuit with acceptable sensory characteristics.


Producing And Sensory Examine The Biscuit Using Wheat Flour, Cassava Flour (Abacha Floor) And African Yam Bean Flour


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