Production Processes Of Improving The Quality Of “Pupuru” (A Fermented Traditional Cassava Flour)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Production Processes Of Improving The Quality Of “Pupuru” (A Fermented Traditional Cassava Flour)


Pupuru (a fermented cassava product) is one of the major staple foods amongst the Yoruba, Ilaje and Ijaw speaking people in the south-south and south-western region of Nigeria, which had its source from the Ikale tribe of Ondo state. The traditional method of processing cassava tubers into pupuru involve, cassava tuber harvesting, peeling, washing, soaking, dewatering, moulding and smoking. The pressed and mashed cassava tubers are then rolled or molded into a ball shape and dried by smoking: it was observed that the pupuru produced by this method is infested with unpleasant odour, drudgery, poor packaging and cannot be stored for a long period. Hence, this project investigates in detail an improved method that will eliminate the deficiencies associated with the traditional method of pupuru production.

The proximate composition, sensory evaluation, PH, hydrocyanide content, density and water absorption capacity of the resulted pupuru from the improved method were determined. The moisture content (10.21%) was lower than the moisture content of the traditionally produced pupuru which is 24.01%. Also, the HCN content which is 0.81mg/kg was found to be lower to the traditionally produced pupuru which was 1.45mg/kg. With the introduction of improved techniques and modern equipment, this study has led to the production of improved pupuru with better organoleptic qualities such as colour, odour, mouldability, stickiness and texture. The improved method involves harvesting, peeling, washing, soaking, dewatering, pressing, sundrying, milling, sieving, remilling and packaging. with the use of machines and methods that reduces the problem of traditional production minimally.

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the botanical family Euphorbiacea. Cassava is primarily a source of carbohydrates and contains very little protein or fat. It is a staple food for over 500 million people in the developing world, (FAO, 2005).

Cassava tubers are highly perishable and cannot be kept in fresh condition for more than a few days after harvest without serious deterioration in quality. In order to extend its shelf life, cassava is being processed into dried products in a variety of ways in different parts of the world to meet the local needs, taste and storage.

The major process and form of cassava tuber fall into four general categories: meal, flour, chips and starch. (FAO, 2005). Traditionally, cassava roots are processed by various methods into numerous products, such as, Garri, fufu, lafun, abacha, pupuru e.t.c.

Cassava is widely used for both human consumption, livestock feed and various forms of Industrial uses, (FAO, 2006). It can be prepared by boiling, baking, frying and roasting. The young leaves of sweet cassava are used as vegetable greens and they are more wholesome than the roots since they contain high amount of protein, the leaves are also valuable food for particular goats, (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1995). Also, there is an increase in the use of cassava in industrial fermentation for alcohol production and for microbial protein production for animal feed (FAO, 2005).

About 19% of the world production of cassava is used in the manufacture of industrial starch products (such as in laundry, gums and adhesive). And in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and in production of alcoholics, (Agbo-Egbe and Mbome, 2006). The demand for these products is on the increase and Governments interest in cassava research is also increasing with strong emphasis on mechanization. This is because cassava processing is labour intensive and the quality of the locally processed items are below acceptable standards. Lack of mechanization is responsible for the long time required for processing a given product.

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