Effect Of Fermentation Time On The Quality Characteristic Of Cassava Flour
The effect of formation time on the quality characteristics of cassava flour was accessed. Fresh cassava roots were fermented for different time intervals of 12hr, 24 hr and 36hr with an additional sample to serve as control. Further analysis were carried out for the proximate composition and some functional properties of the flour samples produced from the various samples.
The result revealed that the moisture and crude fibre content increased with fermentation time. The 36hr sample recorded the highest quantity of moisture and crude fibre (4.01% and 3.0%) respectively. The protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents decreased with fermentation time. The sample resulting from 12hr fermented roots recorded the highest quantity of protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate. Generally, fermentation have been proved to have significant effect on the quality characteristic of the various flour samples.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Table of contents
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 History of cassava
- 2.2 Economic importance of cassava
- 2.3 Uses of cassava
- 2.3.1 Cassava dishes and their native
- 2.3.2 Advantages of cassava flour over wheat flour
- 2.4 Nutritional profile of cassava
- 2.5 Methods of cassava flour processing
- 2.6 Fermentation
- 2.7 Quality characteristics of food
3.0 Materials and Method
- 3.1 Flour production
- 3.2.1 The Flow chart
- 3.3 Proximate Analysis
- 3.3.1 Moisture content determination
- 3.3.2 Ash content determination
- 3.3.3 Protein content determination
- 3.3.4 Fat content determination
- 3.3.5 Crude fibre determination
- 3.3.6 Carbohydrate determination
- 3.4 Functional properties
- 3.4.1 Water absorption
- 3.4.2 Oil absorption capacity
- 3.4.3 Wettability
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Key
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
Cassava (Manihot esulenta crantz) constitutes one of the main staple foods in many sub-Saharan countries in Africa. Cassava is a significant source of calories for more than 500 million people world wide (cook 1985). It plays a food security role in providing a stable food base in areas prone to drought and famine. One main disadvantage of cassava is its rapid microbiogical determination occurrence (Sanni 1992). This cassava is processed into flour (cassava flour) and preserved.
Cassava flour is a fraction of cassava obtained from the roots. It is a good source of carbohydrates but a poor source of protein. Cassava flour differs from tapioca four in that tapioca is made from the cassava staunch of the cassava plant where cassava flour is the ground root. It is naturally glutten free. It is a good for bread, other baked food and celiac diet. Cassava flour is a good substitute for wheat flour. As a side note; insects will not eat cassava flour not even cockroach. Cassava flour may be fermented or unfermented.
Quality characteristics of cassava describes the properties and nutritional qualities/chemical characteristics of cassava flour which include the moisture content, protein content, fibre content, starch quality, cynagenic compounds present etc varying amount of these elements mentioned have been said to significantly reduce when the cassava flour is subjected to fermentation process.
Fermentation derived from the latin word feven meaning to be boiling. The best known example is the degradation of sugars in alcohol by yeast as exemplified in the spontaneous transformation of fruit juice into wine or cider with vigorous evolution of carbon (iv) oxide given the impression of boiling. The term is now used generally to describe metabolic process in which chemical changes are effected, not only on sugars but in many organic substrate by micro organism or derived enzymes.
In food processing, fermentation is typically the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria or a combination of the two. Food fermentation has been said to serve five main purpose which include the enrichment of diet through development of a diversity of flavours, aromas and textures in food substrate, preservation of substantial amount of food through lactic acid, alcohol acetric acid and alkaline fermentations, biological enrichment of foods substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and vitamins, elimination of antinutrients and a decrease in cooking time and fuel requirement.
Natural fermentation proceeds human history. Since ancient times, however, humans control fermentation process.
Fermentation time describes the period allowed for the fermentation to take place. That is, the time allotted for fermentation to occur in a given food substrate.
This study therefore aimed at investigating how different fermentation times influence the quality characteristics of cassava flour.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The result revealed that unfermented (control) cassava flour has a low moisture, protein, crude fibre content, while ash content, fat content and carbohydrate content were high. This effect increases with fermentation time, such that the proximate composition increased in fibre and moisture, while ash content, fat content and carbohydrate with protein decreased with fermentation time.
From these results, it can be concluded that fermentation can be of help in the control of chemical composition of flour produced from cassava roots.
It is suggested that cassava flours for patients of diabetes mellitus should be well fermented so as to reduce the sugar content.
Well fermented cassava with high water absorption and wettability should have low cooking time and fuel requirements.
The low quality of carbohydrate and fat in fermented samples suggested that considerable quantity if cassava should be served to obsessed people.
It is also suggested that fermentation time for cassava should be extended to about 4 days do as to ensure complete removal of the atinutritional components of cassava.
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