Synthesis Of Bioplastic Of Cassava Starch
This study was carried out to the synthesis of biodegradable plastic using Casava starch. Environmental pollution due to plastic waste taking too long to decompose has become a global problem.
There have been numerous solutions proposed, one of which is the use of bioplastics. The use of cassava starch as the main ingredient in the manufacture of bioplastics shows great potential, since Indonesia has a diverse range of starch-producing plants. The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of glycerol on microbial degradation.
This experimental research investigated the use of cassava flour mixed with glycerol plasticizer at various concentrations (0, 2, 2.5, 3%) in the synthesis of bioplastics. The aspects studied were biodegradability, moisture absorption (using ASTM D 570), shelf life, and morphological properties (using a camera equipped with a macro lens) and SEM. This study revealed that complete degradation could be achieved on the 9th day. The addition of a large concentration of glycerol would accelerate the microbial degradation process, increase moisture, and extend the shelf life of bioplastics in a dry place.
1.1 Background of the Study
One of the most current concern with the environment is the accumulated waste of non-degradable plastics. It create a great expectation for more ecological and economically viable alternative to minimise the environmental impact. Several materials from agricultural resources have been used to produce renewable, biodegradable and even more edible packaging. Cassava flour for example is one of the most commonly used biopolymers as food packaging material because it is non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, low cost, renewable and abundantly available in nature. The major component of cassava flour is starch but it may content small amount of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. The starch plays important role in bioplastic forming. Today starch based bioplastics dominates 66% of the global bioplastic market. Starch based bioplastic is made by gelatinizing starch.
Cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root which is a major source of Carbohydrates. Starch is mainly used as food but also readily converted chemically, physically and biologically into many useful products. Starch is used to produce many products such as food, paper, textiles, adhesives, beverages, confectionery, pharmaceuticals and building materials. Casava starch has many remarkable characteristics, including high paste viscosity, high paste clarity and high freeze – thaw stability, which are advantages to many industries.
Bioplastics are plastics which all carbon is derived from renewable resources. They may or may not be biodegradable. Bioplastics contain both renewable and fossilfuel- based carbon.
Bioplastics are plastic that decomposes naturally in the environment. This is achieved when microorganisms in the environment metabolize and break down the structure of biodegradable plastic.
Biodegradable plastics are less harmful to the environment than traditional or conventional plastics. Bioplastics are made from natural materials such as Corn starch and Casava starch.
1.2. Statement of Problem.
Parkaging plays a significant part in recent years as over 67 million tonnes of packaging waste resulting in environmental concerns. This provokes many different processes, for example, the using of additives such as filters, colourants and plasticizers to produce polymers as packaging applications. (Song J. H., Murphy R. J., Narayan R., Davies G. B. H. 2009. Biodegradable and Compostable alternativs to Conventional plastics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 364. 2127 – 2139.)
1.2. Objectives of Study
The major objective is the Synthesis of biodegradable plastic of Cassava starch.
1.4. Research Questions
- What are biodegradable plastics?
- What is significance of synthesis of biodegradable plastic?
- Why is Cassava starch preferred for the synthesis of biodegradable plastic?
- Why is bioplastics preferred to other plastics?
1.5 Significance of Study
Environmental, economic, and safety challenges have caused many scientists to invent biodegradable polymers as a substitute for petrochemical based polymers. This biodegradable polymers or bioplastics indicate more eco- friendly environment than the conventional plastic which lead to environmental issue. (Reddy L. Reddy S. Gupta A. 2013. Study of Bioplastics as green and sustainable alternative to plastic. IJETAE 3. 75-81.)
The persistent problem in the development of biodegradable plastics is the high cost of production which leads to certain limitations. An alternative has been proposed by using agriculture waste. (Jain R. Tiwari A. 2015. Biosynthesis of plant friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source. J. Environ Health Sci. Eng. 13.)
Starch as biodegradable polymer becomes reasonable material for the production of bioplastic because of its low cost. (Mose B. R., Marangas M. 2011. A review on starch based nanocomposites for bioplastic materials. J. Mat Sci Eng 1. 239- 245)
Therefore, production of bioplastics is the breakdown innovation to solve the environmental issues by using renewable and degradable natural resources in order to provide more costly effective bioplastics.
1.6. Scope of Study
The research focus on the synthesis of biodegradable plastic using Casava starch.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that bioplastics is affected by water content, moisture, and oxygen level. Resistance to degradation of bioplastics made of cassava starch was strongly influenced by the amount of glycerol used as the plasticiser. The greater the amount of glycerol was used, the faster the degradation process (the complete degradation occurred on the 9th day), the higher the moisture absorption, and the longer the shelf life (in a dry place) would be.
It is recommended that large concentration of glycerol would accelerate the microbial degradation process, increase moisture, and extend the shelf life of bioplastics in a dry place.
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