The Influence Of Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students

Project and Seminar Material for Education

The Influence Of Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students


Abstract


This research was aimed at investigating the incidence of drugs abuse among secondary school students in Esan Central LGA of Edo State the findings of the research were based on the effect of drugs, reasons for drugs abuse, how these drugs are gotten, the students that abuse it more and the commonly abused drugs secondary school students randomly chosen, drawn from 10 secondary school four boys schools two girls and mixed schools.findings show that alcohol, Indian hemp, LSD Amphatanin, Chinese capsule are the drugs commonly abused the investigation also show that the drugs have effect on the abusers such lack of sleep, restlessness, hyper-activity of the muscle and lack of self control. The abuse of drugs was also found to be more prevalent among males students than female students. And that most of the drugs gotten through illegal means. The findings also indicated that the reasons why the respondents abuse drugs are as a desire to win during competition, because it aid movement of the muscle, reduce fatigue, ease tension and as an act of curiosity to know its effect. Solutions to the problem includes government taking action against drug abusers, the provision of counselling services to school and the imposition of some level of restriction to the production of these drugs. And also, the mass media should mount heavy campaign against drug abuse and wining should not be much emphasized in secondary school.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

In recent times, the incidence of drug abuse is on the increase and experts in the area of drugs and health have indicated that if the trend of drug abuse is not controlled, the problems might aggregate into serious health problem. One sad aspect of this is that teenagers and children of school age are worst involved with this problem.

To say the least, the phenomenon of drug abuse is what individuals; government and society are generally interested in.

A drug is any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the organism.

A drug is a substance used for medical purposes, either alone or in mixture substance that changes the state of function of cells, organs or organism. Drugs are mood modifies which change the mood of individual per time. Drug abuse can be defined variously depending on the standpoint of the individual.

It could be seen as constant and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and legal and illegal drugs or the use of drugs without diagnosis and prescription, to an extent that it hinders ones health. Our health-oriented definition of drugs abuse is the self administration of a quantity or a pattern that impairs an individuals health or social or economic functioning.

Drug use and abuse or misuse is phenomenon, which has bothered, is bothering and will continue to bother mankind even in generation to come. Governments, religious organization, social groups, world bodies and concerned individuals in the world over are alarmed and indiscriminate and went on use and abuse of drugs and the implication to the individual health status. Drugs abuse world wind is said to have become a major social problems, which affect individuals at every socio-economic level as well as individuals in age group from the adolescent to the elderly.

For instance, Caliendo (1996) reports; an estimated 9.3-10.3 million U.S adults or 7% of the U.S. adult population are alcoholics or problems drinkers among teens and youth age 14-17 years old, this represents 19% of American youths.

The rate of alcoholic consumption is alarming.

Caliendo (1976) look at that; it has been estimated based on data obtained from USDH. Food balance sheet, that the average annual consumption of obsolete alcohol from beer, wine and spirit among the drinking age America public 2.6 gallons per individual. The caloric value of this quantity of alcohol is approximately 210 calories daily per son. The rate of alcohol consumption varies among individuals.

Many people do not consume any alcohol whereas many consume alcohol far in excess of the average. It is estimated, however that on the average, adult females in the United States derives to 10% of their RDA calories from alcohol whereas males obtain 7.5%.

This trend is similar globally.

Origin of Drug Use and Abuse

The African society is a drug using one. We take in drugs daily as we eat food in form of herds, stems, roots, crops and cereal beverages. Ideally, we use drugs either in these aforementioned forms, or in refined forms for both preventive and curative purpose.

For certain ailments and diseases. In traditional African society which dates back even before recorded history, drugs are used daily for difference cultural and religious purpose of birth, death, marriage, and divorce rites.
Others are initiations into difference groups, appeasement of the gods. In concluding agreements for buying and selling of lands and landed property, apprenticeship agreements for teaching and learning of crafts and so on.

Therefore, the use of drugs, in different forms and for different purpose permeates every facet of our traditional society and culture. Most of these drugs in their unrefined forms grow widely in our environment and hence there easy availability to the users. One can therefore say without fear of contradiction that the history of drugs abuse and misuse is as old as society itself or man.

The arrival of the ‘white men’ on the shores of African continent added yet more damaging drugs to the ones we already had and to that extent made the environment for drugs use and abuse friendly by easy availability and preference.

Effects of Drugs Use and Abuse

According to Agwubike (1998) drugs are known to be chemical agents that affect living cells they are used in modern medicine, in the treatment of illness and disease.

Drug abuse has severe health implication. The incidence and severity of problems associated with the non-medical use of the drugs is incalculable. Alcoholism for instance is one of the most common types of under-nutrition in the adult. Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary factors related to the development of cirrhosis of the lever which according to Caliendo (1966), the ninth leading killer disease of the United States population.

Villabi et al (1991) report; Spain ranks second to France in international comparison of alcohol consumption, 52% of adults drinks daily, and mortality due to liver cirrhosis ranks as the sixth causes of death both in terms of death rates and potential years of life lost.

In addition to the liver problem and the nutritional, Caliendo (1976) has this to say, “Alcohol related deaths may reach as many as 205, 000 annually in the U.S. It has also been known to cause several health problem like congestion heart failure, high blood pressure, lose of appetite, inflammation of the stomach/pancreas, intestines which leads to nutrient matabsorption.

Another severe consequence of alcoholism worthy of mention is the effect it has on the offspring of a pregnant drinker. It is said in Britain alone that more than 44% of children born to alcoholic mothers had 10 below 80, as well as significantly higher rates of hearty and joint abnormalities.

Economically, it cost the government billions of petro-dollar if quantified in terms of man-hour lost as a result of drug associated problems. This affects our out-put by reducing productivity.

According to Caliendo (1976), … alcohol abuse in the United State cost almost $43 billion in 1975.

According to Agwubike (1998), a drug has damaging consequences to the body organ and systems e.g. some drugs damage the liver, kidney or adversely affect the central nervous system. In certain instances death may result. It also state ion his book that users of drugs spend a lot money in producing drugs to themselves.

Drugs Commonly Abused

According to Agwubike 91998) drugs commonly abused by secondary school students are;

  1. Amphetamines
  2. Anabolic steroids
  3. Marijuana
  4. Cocaine
  5. Heroine
  6. Caffeine and others like alcoholic content etc.

Which have excitatory or inhibitory effect which are thought to enhance performance in sport by delaying the onset of fatigue or hasten recovery rate.

Prevention Control of Drug Abuse

In view of the adverse effect of drug abuse on the private and public health of the society, there is need to prevent and control the abuse of drugs. In order to achieve this, there should be both concerted and simultaneous efforts by government, religious and other concerned organizations.

There has to be drug education and re-education.

This education should be directed at the drugs using population especially adolescents in both secondary and secondary school. The objectives should be to made available to them useful information on short term effect of drug use and abuse especially dependence producing drugs. This is necessary because most of the drug users do so because of ignorance of the area of using the mass media, school and other educational means for it to spread drug education. There should also be drug adult education to educate parents who will in turn continue to teach their wards at home the need to avoid drug abuse or the correct use of drugs.

World Health Organization (WHO) through its appropriate agencies should step up action both in term of education and in releasing funds for rehabilitation and various activities that will discourage drug use and misuse.


Research Question

  1. What are the factors responsible for drug abuse?
  2. What category of secondary school students abuse drug more?
  3. What are the types of drugs abused?
  4. What are the effect of drug abuse?

Purpose of Study

This research was carried out with a view;

  1. To identifying the types of drugs that are commonly abuse by secondary school students
  2. To point out conditions under which secondary school students take drugs
  3. To highlight the reasons why secondary schools students indulge in the abuse of drugs
  4. To educate secondary school students activities towards drugs involvement
  5. To suggest and recommend ways by which the problems of drugs abuses can be controlled among secondary school students

Significance of the Study

  1. Indiscipline among secondary school students in most cases has been blamed on drug involvement.
  2. The climate during competition game situation will undoubtedly be improved when secondary students are intimated with the implications of drug involvement.
  3. It will enable the school authorities and sport organization to plan programme to suit secondary school students from various background.
  4. It will reduce indiscipline among secondary school students and abuse of drugs.
  5. Deviancy as well as delinquencies amongst minimum in school and society at large.
  6. It will create a way to guide them to a meaningful life or drug free live.
  7. This study will serve as a base for more research work on drug abuse among secondary school students.

Scope of the Study

This investigation focuses on the influence of drug abuse on students in secondary school of Nigeria. It will cover the influence of the drug addiction on the student performance especially secondary schools in Essan Local government in Edo state.


Definition of Term

Drug: Any substance that when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions.
Drug dependence: A state, psychic and some time also physical, resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basic in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid this discomfort of its absence.

Dependence Producing Drugs

A drug having the capacity to interact with a living organism to produce a state of psychic or physical dependence or both.

Non-Medical Use of Drugs

The uses of dependence producing drugs other than when medically indicated.

Drug Abuse:

Is the constant and indiscriminately use of both prescribed and non-prescribed legal drugs or to the extent that it hinders.

Legal Drugs:

These are drugs statutorily allowed for use by law of the land.

Illegal Drugs:

Are drugs approved by a quantified physician for use by the patient.


Chapter Five


Summary of Finding, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

  1. The chapter one of the research work contained the background of the study, discussed about the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in tertiary institution and also enlightened us to the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, its significance , the research question, and scope of the study.
  2. Chapter two of the research work exposes us to drug abuse, history of drug abuse, types of drug abuse, reason for drug abuse and effect of drug abuse on academic sources.
  3. Chapter three talked about the various activities and methods used in carrying out the research work. It discussed on the type of research design, the research population, the sampling techniques used, the research instrument, validity and method of data collection.
  4. Chapter four contained the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected and its discussion.
  5. Chapter five comprises the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations and was followed by references and appendix.

5.2 Conclusion

The use of substance among students may directly impair academic activities which limits their academic performance for most students who use drugs at a lower level, however, drug use may serve as a maturational “snare” that keeps some students engaged in deviant peer groups as others move on to more normative groups, thus having a long term direct effect on educational attainment. Other studies have discussed similar processes, in which differential pathways to problematic outcome are determined, in part, by the level of multiple risk behaviors.
If we believe that multiple mechanisms are operating, then it follows that preventive interventions aimed at improving academic engagement should broaden their focus beyond drug use in adolescence. Community and family risk factors should also be targets of intervention. Our findings shows that drug use in students partially mediated the effect of their externalizing behaviors on college , completion, students externalizing also had direct effects on both students reading achievement and on degree completion. This implies that a powerful target of intervention should be externalizing behavior, especially for time who have not yet developed heavy or problematic level of alcohol and or drug use.


5.3 Recommendations

Based upon the literature review and the empirical investigation, various recommendations for a prevention and intervention programme are proposed to help address influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in tertiary institution. The following are recommendations for effective programming to prevent and reduce drug among students of tertiary institutions.

Pre-Enrolment Messages.

First year students typically have exaggerated ideas about how much college students drink. Wanting to fit in and being free from parental control for the first time, there students can be led by this misperception into a pattern of heavy drinking that increases their risk of academic failure, serious injury, sexual assault and even death. Social norms marketing campaigns should be rolled out in universities and colleges to try to counteract these false beliefs by conveying accurate survey data about students drinking norms. The idea is that once students learn that far fewer students are drinking heavily than they once thought, they will feel less social pressure to drink and, therefore, moderate their alcohol use.

Provide Alcohol-Free Options.

The schools and country governments should create and promote-alcohol free events for students, support students club and organizations that are substance free create and promote service learning and volunteer opportunities, require community service work as part of the academic curriculum and promote consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and food at events.

Restrict Alcohol Availability.

Schools should enforce strict rules on alcohol and drug abuse by requiring all social events during orientation of first year to be alcohol free, disseminate responsible host guidelines for both on and off campus parties, install a responsible beverages service program, eliminate residence hall delivery of alcohol purchases, advertise food and activities such as dancing or sport, rather than drinking as the focus of the event.

Educational Programme Inventions.

Drug prevention programmes known as life skills training have been found to be successful with young adolescents. Life skill training is based on findings that most adolescent’s first use drugs in social situations and that their decisions are influenced not just by one factor but a variety. Effective programs focus on enhancing problem solving skills and aiding students to evaluate the influence of the media. Effective programs help to improve self-esteem, and reduce stress and anxiety. These skills are taught using combination of methods including demonstration, practice, feedback, and praise. Another proven approach-specific focus, emphasizing the application of skills directly to the problem of substance abuse (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2007).

Role of the Community

Because of complexity of the problem, co-ordination of prevention messages and activities with other institutions in a student’s life is essential. The community, not the school is where most student drug use occurs. Communities can send a clear and consistent message by developing and implementing to broad, comprehensive approach to dealing with substance abuse.

Punitive Methods

These methods are associated with crisis management approaches which are reactive in their policies and locate the problem in students punitive methods rely on the infliction of punishment with the aim of deterring students from committing the crime. This method applies the principal of stimulus-response connection. The purpose of punishment should be communicated, understood and accepted if it is to be effective in enforcing student discipline. Obviously, however, drug abuser cannot rehabilitate through punishment alone.


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