The Effects Of Drug Abuse In Delta State (A Case Study Of Uvwie L.G.A)

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

The Effects Of Drug Abuse In Delta State (A Case Study Of Uvwie L.G.A)


Abstract


Adolescents prefer an autonomous and independent life that is free from adult control, there by engaging in various delinquent acts (drug abuse, rape, robbery, cultism and vandalism) that are dangerous to the home, community, school and the nation. The impact of drug abuse among adolescents has been a stigma of moral decadence, violence, thugery, assault, madness and murder.

The menace of drug abuse has eaten deep into the fabrics of our society; however, with effective counselling programmes, the problems can be tackled through campaign against drug abuse by government and other relevant authorities Drug control counselling centres should be established in every community and qualified health counsellors should be employed in helping drug addicts by giving them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system. Drug awareness units to be set up in all states by the federal, state and local government not to try people who use drugs as criminals, but to help solve their socio-psychological problem. This paper discusses the concept of drug abuse, types, theories of causes, signs and symptoms, effects, and strategies for counselling.


Table of Contents


  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Chapter Summary

Chapter Three

Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Validity
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Nigeria is currently batting with the issue of drug trafficking, which has not only reared its ugly head in our society but also which developed into a worldwide crisis. June 26 of every year has been set aside for celebration of United Nations International Day against drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking.

Drug abuse has led to many adverse effects, which many people are ignorant of. It disrupts relationship and human potentials. It attacks physical health, alters personalities, reduces academic performances. To crown everything up, drug abuse leads to destruction of lives and properties.

A drug can be define as any chemical solid, liquid or amorphous substances derived from plants, animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some descramble effects. Also, a drug can be define as a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect to open the body of higher nervous system (the mind) the effect of drug can be positive or negative.

However, drug when properly used or taken into a living organism, produces the desired result and many modify one or more of its functional parts it is usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Such substances are either of nagetables mineral or animal origin they could be prepared for the human body that produces the desired result into the treatment of diseases and ailment. While the abuse of drug is defined as the excessive consumption of drug by an individual. Drug abuse results when there is self-infection or from the approved medical usage. Drug abuse is involved in the following; excessive use of drugs (unprescribed, drugs ), and use of hard drugs.

According to Agwusike (1990) drug abuse is the use of drugs above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original prescription Salamatu (2019) also defined drug abuse as self-treatment of physical ailment which would result from ignorance. The society of doctors and pharmacist wormed at the uncontrollable ways and manners in which the drugs are sold to the public in our markets and medical stores which are contributory factors to drug abuse. Drugs other than those for common pain cough abuse and cold are sold in a doctor’s prescription. More so, drug abuse could be viewed from different perspectives depending on the focus under view. It could be described as a non-medical use of drug which may cause harm to the students or the society in general. In this regard, people generally misuse or abuse drugs because the substance alter the mode of behavior of an individual. Over the years, the use of hard drugs like tobacco, sedatives, Indian hemp, cocoa leaves, alcohol, cocaine to mention but a few have drastically been on the increase especially in this part of the word (Africa). The dependence or addition, which is psychological is characterized by the complication to take drugs on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its mental effect.

According to (Robins, 2010) in his book “The history of drug abuse could be traced to the urge of man wanting to have power to relieve tension, satisfy his needs obtained occasional release from problems and the need to find a cure to some ailments all those have contributed to drug use abuse and addiction. The use of drugs by man is as old as man himself. Through-out recorded history drug has been in use long before this medical and recreational intoxicating and self-induce relief from psychic pain and emotion. The early history of drug is inseparable from the early history of medicine.

According to A (Idown, 2018) “Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the quantity required by the users. the expiration period is not stated substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural chemicals caffeine which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and nicotine as in stimulant and tension relieving drugs. They are considered socially acceptable and used recreationally. However, they produce dependence and are also known to cause harm. Other dugs although are used medically for the treatment of one ailment or the other may also cause problems for individual. Examples of such drugs are psychoactive drugs or sedative prescribed but may be abuse thus causing addiction and harm. There are different causes of drug which include stimulant such as cocaine, tobacco or coffee, depressants such as alcohol and other substances of depressants such as heroine, morphine and opiates and the last one is hallucinogens. Further more, drug addiction, also called substance use disorder is a disease that affects a person’s brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and cocaine also are considered drugs when you’re addicted you may continue using the drug despite the harm it cause. Drug and dictation can start with experiment use of a recreational drug in social situations and for some people, the drug use becomes more frequent. For others particularly with opoids drug addiction begin with exposure to prescribed medication or receiving medications from a friend or relative who has been prescribed the medication (Richard, 2018).The risk of addiction and how fast you become addicted varies by drug. Some drugs such as opioid have a higher pain killers than others pain killers have a higher than others. As time passes you may need large dose of the drug to get high. Soon you may need the drug just to feel good. As your drug use increases you may find that it’s increasingly difficult to go off the drug. Attempts to stop drug use may cause intense craving and make you feel physically ill (withdrawal symptoms).

Most importantly, drugs pose a very big problem in the world today and it is ruining the lives of many millions of people both in adolescent and general population. The use of illegal drugs has spread at a high rate and has penetrated every part of the world. No nation has been spared from the devastating problem caused by drugs and substance abuse. NIgeria has not been spared either and in most cases it has been as a transit point of hard drugs especially among students. Trafficking of hard drugs into developing countries has not spared Nigeria, the drug consumption and dependence among secondary and college students and has led to unrest and consequently wide ranging destruction of life and property (Ngesu, Ndiku & Masese, 2008).Factors influencing students to drug use have been identified among them parental influence whereby it has been noted that children from homes where parents take drugs tend toimitate their parents’ behaviors and by modeling they also start using drugs (Ngesu, et al 2008). School factors can also influence students to drug use (Ngesu et al: 2008). How the school administration manages students’ affairs may lead to drug abuse, high handedness, lack of freedom and failure to address them generally creates stress which can lead to abuse of drugs as depressors (Kingala, 2000). Unfortunately, across all continents in the world and throughout time, drug abuse among both the young and adult population has manifested itself in various forms. It appears that drug abuse affects behavior and its effects on secondary school students whose prevalence was assessed in this study, is a worldwide problem with no exception of Nigerian secondary students. Use of drugs has led to many health problems in the youth, especially among the secondary school students. The youth experience many special problems and considerations. This is the period of adolescence which is full of many challenges such as stress of physiological and physical change, competition in school and life in general, generation gap, unjust and cruel world among other problems. Psychologically, the adolescents have serious developmental tasks to handle such as peer identification and individualization from their family. Sexual identification; societal and vocational; role identification and negotiating issues of authority power and independence are primary (Oketch, 2008).

Thus, a report by United Nation Drug Control Programme (UNDCP, 1998) shows that 60% of student’s abuse drugs. A survey by National Council Against Drug Abuse (NACADA, 2006) shows that substance abuse is widespread. It affects the youth mostly although it cuts across all social groups. Many young people especially theunemployed have resulted to using drugs like heroin and cocaine which are injectables. This has been a major contributor to the spread of HIV/AIDS due to the fact that they share syringes. Other drugs like alcohol can lead to risky sexual behavior as they affect judgment and decision making. A drunkard is unable to assert himself or herself especially when it comes to saying no to unprotected sex thus resulting to exposures to sexually transmitted infections.
In Nigeria, the most common types of abused drugs according to NAFDAC (2000) as cited by Haladu (2013) are categorized as follows:-

1. Stimulants:

These are substances that directly act and stimulate the central nervous system.
Users at the initial stage experience pleasant effects such as energy increase. The major source of these comes from caffeine substance.

2. Hallucinogens’:

These are drugs that alter the sensory processing unit in the brain. Thus, producing distorted perception, feeling of anxiety and euphoria, sadness and inner joy, they normally come from marijuana, LSD etc.

3. Narcotics:

These drugs relive pains, induce sleeping and they are addictive. They are found in heroin, codeine, opium etc.

4. Sedatives:

These drugs are among the most widely used and abused.

This is largely due to the belief that they relieve stress and anxiety, and some of them induce sleep, ease tension, cause relaxation or help users to forget their problems. They are sourced from valium, alcohol, promotazine, chloroform.

5. Miscellaneous:

This is a group of volatile solvents or inhalants that provide euphoria, emotional dis-inhibition and perpetual distortion of thought to the user. The main sources are glues, spot removers, tube repair, perfumes, chemicals etc.

6. Tranquilizers:

They are believed to produce calmness without bringing drowsiness, they are chiefly derived from Librium, Valium etc.

The term “drug abuse” is excessive or persistent usage of drugs without regard for accepted medical practice. Given this definition, it means that all drugs can be abused. Drug abuse is often used to refer to psychoactive or hard drugs which has effect on the central nervous system; the mind, mood, behaviour and eventually the total health and personality to the individual.

The resultant effects of drug abuse are visible in both urban and rural areas. Sick men and women are roaming our streets, we witnessing large number of youths who are acutely intoxicated exhibiting violence and violent behaviours everywhere most especially “Okada” riders.

Haladu (2013) gave the following as the main causes:-

i. Experimental Curiosity:

Curiosity to experiment the unknown facts about drugs thus motivates adolescents into drug use. The first experience in drug abuse produces a state of arousal such as happiness and pleasure which in turn motivate them to continue.

ii. Peer Group Influence:

Peer pressure plays a major role in influencing many adolescents into drug abuse. This is because peer pressure is a fact of teenage and youth life. As they try to depend less on parents, they show more dependency on their friends. In Nigeria, as other parts of the world, one may not enjoy the company of others unless he conforms to their norms.

iii. Lack of Parental Supervision:

Many parents have no time to supervise their sons and daughters. Some parents have little or no interaction with family members, while others put pressure on their children to pass exams or perform better in their studies. These phenomena initialize and increases drug abuse.

iv. Personality Problems Due to Socio-Economic Conditions:

Adolescents with personality problems arising from social conditions have been found to abuse drugs. The social and economic status of most Nigerians is below average. Poverty is widespread, broken homes and unemployment is on the increase, therefore our youths roam the streets looking for employment or resort to begging. These situations have been aggravated by lack of skills, opportunities for training and re-training and lack of committed action to promote job creation by private and community entrepreneurs. Frustration arising from these problems lead to recourse in drug abuse for temporarily removing the tension and problems arising from it.

v. The Need for Energy to Work for Long Hours:

The increasing economic deterioration that leads to poverty and disempowerment of the people has driven many parents to send their children out in search of a means of earning something for contribution to family income.
These children engage in hawking, bus conducting, head loading, scavenging, serving in food canteens etc and are prone to drug taking so as to gain more energy to work for long hours.

vi. Availability of the Drugs:

In many countries, drugs have dropped in prices as supplies have increased.

vii. The Need to Prevent the Occurrence of Withdrawal Symptoms:

If a drug is stopped, the user experiences what is termed “withdrawal symptoms”. Pain, anxiety, excessive sweating and shaking characterize such symptoms. The inability of the drug user to tolerate the symptoms motivates him to continue (Ige, 2000).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The adolescents and youths of Uvwie L.G.A constitute the high risk group with female getting more involved than they used to. The attention of the government has been drawn to this menace hence government has put in place National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). The agency is charged with the responsibility of combating the problem of drug abuse and to check the trafficking of hard drugs. However, drug abuse continues to ravage the energetic strata of our society.

The menace of drug abuse world over and Nigeria in particular has generated a great deal of National controversy, opposition, criticism and debate. The issue of what constitute drug abuse in Uvwie L.G.A has become a thing of concern amongst the health workers, educational elites and other people alike. It is against this back ground that the researcher intend to investigate the “side effect” of drugs when wrongly used or not used according to Doctor’s prescriptions or other crude means of handling drugs among the youths in our society.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study will aim at:

  1. Finding out why youth in Uvwie L.G.A engage in drug abuse
  2. Identifying and assessing the type of drugs most commonly used by the youths
  3. Assessing the extent of damage or less suffered by the community on account of drug abuse
  4. Educating the youth in Uvwie L.G.A on the dangers, causes and prevention of drug abuse
  5. Hastening and widening many readers knowledge on the efforts made by the government and health workers on the control and prevention of drug abuse.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of drug abuse on the society?
  2. What government policies are available to eradicate this menace in our society?
  3. Are males more affected by drug abuse than females?
  4. Does drug abuse lead to certain mental illnesses

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

Ho: Drug abuse has no significant impact on the youths


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this research will be significant in the following areas:-

  1. The research will increase the awareness of the menace drug abuse pose to our society.
  2. For policy makers, the research will be of great benefit. It will assist them in creating policies that will enable the eradication of drug abuse in our society.
  3. As an academic exercise, it will greatly increase the body of knowledge.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will examine the main causes of drug abuse on youths, the factors influencing drug abuse behaviour amongst youths, the effect of the drug abuse and the strategies that could take to address the problem associated with the drug abuse. Hence the study will be delimited to Uvwie L.G.A in Delta state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The following are some of the difficulties encountered by the researcher:

  1. Financial constraint but was able to collect individual views of the respondents
  2. Uvwie L.G.A is a large town and the people are busy with their businesses so it was not easy to cover the whole area
  3. Another problem that this researcher faced was time factor as there were some other commitment that line up to be executed in conjunction with this project work but with concerted effort, the researcher was able to cover key areas in other to have a widening perspective and to come out with a comprehensive and meaningful piece of work
  4. The research project of this nature has to do with people’s private life, most youths refused to cooperate based on the questionnaires administered
  5. Some of the questionnaires were not properly filled and questions were not answered because they thought they will be exposed. Therefore, the result of the study cannot be generalized due to the limited area chosen.

1.9 Definition of Terms

i. Drug:

A drug refers to a substance that could bring about a change in the biological function through its chemical actions (Okoye, 2001).

ii. Drug Abuse:

Manbe (2008) defined drug abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or addictive use of drugs for non- medical purpose.

iii. Drug Addiction:

A state of periodic or chronic intoxication detrimental to the individual (Okuh, 1978).

iv. Sedative Drug:

This depresses the central nervous system. These drugs lessen excitement or functional activities e.g. Barbiturate or mosadon (Orubu, 1983).

v. Narcotics:

These are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system (Ekpo, 1981).

vi. Alcoholism:

This is a disease condition in the human system characterized by excessive and continuous consumption of alcohol (Odejide, 2000).

vii. Drug Dependence:

A state of emotional reliance upon drug in order to maintain a drug induced state.

viii. Illicit:

Forbidden unlawful.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter is based on the discussion of the result obtained, conclusion, implications of the study to education, recommendations, limitations of the study, suggestion for further studies and summary.


5.1 Summary of the Finding

Drug abuse constitutes one of the major social problems in Nigeria because of the hazardous effect on the health of people and also psychologically, physically, socially, and most especially, students performance in schools. The problem appears to be endemic in Nigerian society to the extent that government, scholars, professionals, social workers, academicians, psychologists, sociologist have been trying to find solutions to the problem. This research is the outcome of unsubstantiated statements and generally held beliefs concerning the issue or incidence of drug abuse among Nigeria youths which is held by various people, institutions and organization in the society. Such belief and opinions include those of religion and political leaders, parents, the mass and print media etc which most times, portray students as heavily and almost solely dependent on drug use especially these days. This study was therefore embarked upon so as to examine empirically this thorny and controversial issue of drug abuse among Nigeria youths in Uvwie local government area of delta state.


5.2 Conclusion

In line with the finding of the study and the discussion, the researcher makes the following conclusions. Drug abuse is a social problem basically associated with young people. These young people involve themselves in taking hard drugs and excessive taking of some drugs which may alter the body system or may cause damage to the health. Drug abuse is very common among youths, they take drugs, to get intoxicated or feel high or for them to just feel among or fit into the environment while some take this drugs through the influence of friends or other people around them. Drug is mostly abused by male students than female.


5.3 Recommendation of the Study

The problem of drug abuse among Nigeria youths as the study has revealed is one thing that does nobody or any nation any good. That being the case, the question that arises is what then can be done to this thorny issue of drug use and abuse among our youths.

Perhaps, the following suggestions might be of help to policy maker’s administrators in this very fight against use and abuse of drugs among youths.

  1. Designing Curriculum on Drug Education: Ministry of education (State and Federal) should as a matter of urgency, add to the curriculum drug education at all levels of education.
  2. Campaign against Drug Abuse: National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) should intensify their campaigns on antidrug in order to have a drug free society. The campaign against use of certain substance/drugs and misuse of drugs should be more intensified in secondary school because it is. Where adolescent are mostly found. Also, government and other relevant authorities should lunch out campaigns against drug abuse as well as dependence.
  3. Government should prevent the cultivation/sales of Indian Herm and other deadly herbs that encourage drug abuse by enforcing its existing laws Against drug abuse through its regulatory agencies.
  4. Parents and guardians should Endeavour to monitor their children and wards so that they do not engage in substance/drug abuse.
  5. Establishment of Counseling Centers for Drug Control: Counseling centers should be established in every community by the government or private individuals. Qualified health counselor should be employed in helping drug addicts or those dependent on substances/drugs by giving them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system.
  6. Establishment of Family Education on Drugs: The family is the nucleus of the social organization. Parents should give their children appropriate education on drug use. They should be encouraged by health authorities to offer family education on substance/drug abuse to their children. They should inform them of the dangers of substance/drug abuse and dependence on their health, society and the nation.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research

In view of the wide scope of this study, the findings of the study, limitations, the researcher wishes to suggest the following areas worthy of further investigations.

  1. The consequences of Drug Abuse in Nigeria
  2. The effects of Drug Abuse on undergraduate’s academic achievement
  3. The major causes of Drug Abuse among Nigeria University Undergraduates.

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