Design And Simulation Of Vehicle Speed Control System

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Design And Simulation Of Vehicle Speed Control System


Abstract


This proposed work is an attempt to control the speed of the vehicle designed with computer software to enable the third party or owner to get the location, speed and activity of the driver. To achieve this, the system can transmit the information in real time. The use of GSM/GPRS technologies allows the system to track the objects and provide the up-to-date information. This information is authorized to specific users over the internet as the server gets the information. It is the tele-mointoring system to transmit data to the remote user. Thus the applications are used in real time traffic surveillance. This study proposes a prototype model for location tracking using Geographical Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology. The development is based on the windows phone 8 application by means it can provide flexibility and portability for the user to get the information from anywhere. As these GPS technologies having greater range of frequencies, the user can get the information as quicker as possible. This system is very useful to speed control at specific traffic roads.

These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of Problem
  • 1.2 Purpose of Study
  • 1.3 Aims and Objectives
  • 1.4 Scope / Delimitations
  • 1.5 Limitations / Constraints
  • 1.6 Assumption
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three

3.0 Methods for Fact Finding and Detailed Discussions of the System

  • 3.1 Methodologies for Fact-Finding
  • 3.2 Discussions

Chapter Four

4.0 Futures, Implications and Challenges of the System

  • 4.1 Futures
  • 4.2 Implications
  • 4.3 Challenges

Chapter Five

5.0 Recommendations, Summary and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Road fatalities are a major concern in the developed world. Recent studies show that a third of the number of fatal or serious accidents are associated with excessive or inappropriate speed, as well as changes in the roadway (like the presence of road-work or unexpected obstacles).

Reduction of the number of accidents and mitigation of their consequences are a big concern for traffic authorities, the automotive industry and transport research groups. One important line of action consists in the use of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), which are acoustic, haptic or visual signals produced by the vehicle itself to communicate to the driver the possibility of a collision.

These systems are somewhat available in commercial vehicles today, and future trends indicate that higher safety will be achieved by automatic driving controls and a growing number of sensors both on the road infrastructure and the vehicle itself.

A prime example of driver assistance systems is cruise control (CC), which has the capability of maintaining a constant user-preset speed, and its evolution, the adaptive cruise control (ACC), which adds to CC the capability of keeping a safe distance from the preceding vehicle.

A drawback of these systems is that they are not independently capable of distinguishing between straight and curved parts of the road, where the speed has to be lowered to avoid accidents. However, curve warning systems (CWS) have been recently developed that use a combination of global positioning systems (GPS)

and digital maps obtained from a Geographical Information System (GIS), to assess threat levels for a driver approaching a curve too quickly; likewise, intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle’s velocity is inappropriate, using GPS in combination with a digital road map containing information about the speed limits.

However useful, these systems are inoperative in case of unexpected road circumstances (like roadwork, road diversions, accidents, etc.), which would need the use of dynamically-generated digital maps.

The key idea offered by this paper is to use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag the warning signals placed in the dangerous portions of the road. While artificial vision-based recognition of traffic signals might fail if visibility is poor (insufficient light, difficult weather conditions or blocking of the line of sight by preceding vehicles), RF signals might still be transmitted reliably.

In the last years, RFID technology has been gradually incorporated to commercial transportation systems. A well-known example is the RFID-based highway toll collection systems which are now routinely employed in many countries, like the Telepass system in Italy or the Autopass system in Norway.

Other uses include monitoring systems to avoid vehicle theft, access control to car parking or private areas, and embedding of RFID tags in license plates with specially coded IDs for automatic vehicle detection and identification. Placement of RFID tags on the road lanes has been proposed in order to provide accurate vehicle localization in tunnels or downtown areas where GPS positioning might be unreliable.

In the work by Seoet al., RFID tagging of cars is offered as an alternative to traffic data collection by inductive loops placed under the road surface. The information about the traffic collected by a network of RF readers is then used to regulate traffic at intersection or critical points in the city.

The work by Sato etal.describes an ADAS, where passive RFID tags are arranged in the road close to the position of real traffic signals. An antenna placed in the rear part of the car and close to the floor (since the maximum transmitting range of the Sensors tags is about 40 cm) permits reading of the information stored in the tag memory and conveys a visual or auditive message to the driver.

Initial tests at low driving speeds (20 km/h) show good results.

The work described in this paper is a collaboration between AUTOPIA (Autonomous Vehicles Group) and LOPSI (Localization and Exploration for Intelligent Systems), both belonging to the Center for Automation and Robotics (CAR, UPM-CISC).

This information is collected in real time by RFID sensors placed onboard of the vehicle (an electric Citroën Berlingo), which we have modified to automatically change its speed to adapt to the circumstances of the road. In particular, we have implemented a fuzzy logic control algorithm acting on the longitudinal speed of the vehicle, with actuators which control the vehicle’s throttle and brake to reach and maintain a given target speed.


1.1 Statement of the Problem

Rates of accidents and other road hazards are continually on the increase even with the interventions of road safety laws and regulations. This therefore served the need for an automated vehicle speed control system. To get an efficient speed control system many factors are to be considered ranging from

  1. Network Infrastructure and Satellite coverage
  2. Efficient computerized systems
  3. Adaptive cruise control systems and Curve warning systems
  4. Geographical Information System and Intelligent speed assistance

All to ensure the presence of active traffic signals and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)sensor system.


1.2 Purpose of Study

The main purpose of this research work is to design and simulate a vehicle speed control system.


1.3 Aims and Objectives

The aim and objective of the system to be designed is superior in the sense that all the tasks related to driving are automated and secure. The driver just has to sit back and enjoy the ride.

This system has a large number of advantages:

  1. Smooth traffic flow due to lane driving.
  2. Speed is maintained at a constant 30 km/h. The speed is fast enough for travelling and slow enough for the driver to escape unhurt in a highly unlikely accident.
  3. Driving for the physically challenged.
  4. Transport of goods and personnel in sensitive areas like nuclear stations, military installations, industrial hazard-areas or even in large companies
  5. Tireless driving devoid of the stress involved in long distance driving
  6. Accident prevention due to automatic collision control
  7. Only a few components are added to get all these extra advantages
  8. Extremely cost effective
  9. Easily implementable as the parts required are available in any garage

These above objectives shall be accomplished through a sensor system built for infrastructure to vehicle (I2V) communication, which can transmit the information provided by active signals placed on the road to adapt the vehicle’s speed and prevent collisions. By active signals we mean ordinary traffic signals that incorporate long-range active RFID tags with information stored into them.


1.4 Scope of Study

The scope of this research work is purely based on design and simulation of a vehicle speed control system. This shall be done using various concepts that would make the project simulation implementable.


1.5 Constraints

This project will be limited to the data available at hand, data outside the researcher will not be made use of.
The limitations militating against this research are financial constraints, time factor and other circumstances.


1.6 Assumptions

We use intelligent instruments in every part of our lives. It won’t take muchtime that we realize that most of our tasks are being done by electronics. Very soon, aswe shall see, they will perform one of the most complicated tasks that a person does in aday, that of driving a vehicle.

This is for the better. As the days of manned driving are getting extremelynumbered, so are those of traffic jams, bad, dangerous and rough drivers and moreimportantly, accidents. According to Mr. Willie D. Jones in the IEEE SPECTRUMmagazine (September 2001), a person dies in a car crash every second. Automation ofthe driving control of two-wheelers is one of the most vital need of the hour.


1.7 Definition of Terms

  • AUTOPIA – Autonomous Vehicles Group
  • LOPSI- Localization and Exploration for Intelligent Systems
  • Advanced driver assistance systems – ADAS
  • Cruise control – CC
  • Adaptive cruise control – ACC
  • Curve warning systems – CWS
  • Geographical Information System – GIS

Chapter Five


Recommendations, Summary and Conclusion

5.1 Recommendations

Network, communication and structural infrastructures are a must settle requirement for the real life application of the proposed vehicle speed control system. This is because as studied here the system is high tech based and cannot be implemented in the absence of those basic requirements.

Imaging the network or communication or satellite signal controlling a car in high speed fails, the disaster would be magnificent. Therefore it is recommended that the system should be implemented only when all the required components of the system are readily available and tested to be efficient.


5.2 Summary

The speed control system which involves Collision detection and avoidance systems should become more commonplace with the passage of time. People are living in a networked world and constantly feel that they have less time on their hands. It has been jokingly said, that “The more developed a country is, the more time it’s citizens waste behind the steering wheel.” To perfect this technique, it might take several years, but this project is surely a step in the right direction. Prevention is better than cure. So instead of treating patients after an accident, accidents should be prevented by incorporating this system.

This project is very feasible as very less expensive parts are used. The most expensive component is the micro-processor which is available in the second hand market at a very low cost.

This project can be improved upon in many ways. For example: Including an overtaking feature. Hopefully we will implement them in the future.


5.3 Conclusion

This study presents architecture for automatic adaptation of the longitudinal speed control of a vehicle to the circumstances of the road which can help to decrease one of the major causes of fatalities: the excessive or inadequate vehicle speed. Our approach is based on a combination of three different sensor technologies: RFID tagging of traffic signals to convey their information to the car, Hall Effect sensors located in the vehicle’s wheels for high accuracy measurement of the speed of the car, and DGPS for precise positioning of the vehicle and control loop time. Sensor fusion is applied to the information received by these subsystems, and used to adjust the longitudinal speed of the vehicle with a fuzzy controller. The proposed on-board architecture is portable and easily adaptable to any commercial car with minimal modifications.

The system shows promising results, since active RFID technology permits to detect the presence and identity of the traffic signals reliably and sufficiently in advance, so corrective actions on the vehicle’s behaviour can be taken. In the empirical trials in our installations, the vehicle’s speed was successfully changed as a result of the detection of the signals, increasing the driver’s safety. The technology developed can assist human drivers in difficult road circumstances, as well as a complement ISA or CWS systems if the car is already equipped with them.

The speed control system which involves Collision detection and avoidance systems should become more commonplace with the passage of time. People are living in a networked world and constantly feel that they have less time on their hands. It has been jokingly said, that “The more developed a country is, the more time it’s citizens waste behind the steering wheel.” To perfect this technique, it might take several years, but this project is surely a step in the right direction. Prevention is better than cure. So instead of treating patients after an accident, accidents should be prevented by incorporating this system.

This project is very feasible as very less expensive parts are used. The most expensive component is the micro-processor which is available in the second hand market at a very low cost.

This project can be improved upon in many ways. For example: Including an overtaking feature. Hopefully we will implement them in the future.

Network, communication and structural infrastructures are a must settle requirement for the real life application of the proposed vehicle speed control system. This is because as studied here the system is high tech based and cannot be implemented in the absence of those basic requirements.

Imaging the network or communication or satellite signal controlling a car in high speed fails, the disaster would be magnificent. Therefore it is recommended that the system should be implemented only when all the required components of the system are readily available and tested to be efficient.


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