Computerized Data Encryption And Decryption System

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Computerized Data Encryption And Decryption System


Abstract


This project work was carried out in order to develop a system that can encrypt and decrypt a file, all for security purposes. This aim can be achieve with the following objectives; can be achieved with the following objectives; to develop a system that improves the computer data security through encryption of data. The system should be a good means of safeguarding data in a system and should enhance the integrity of data. Data security in these contemporary times is a must. For your secrets to be secure, it may be necessary to add protections not provided by your computer operating systems. The scope of this study covers the message security, message integrity, user authentication and key management of messages stored in systems used by individuals, companies, security agency in Nigeria in order to improve security and secrecy of data. Also this research work serves as a way of impacting knowledge to students in educational sectors on the important of safeguarding your data. The system is developed using VB.Net, Access Database for the database. The methodology used is waterfall methodology because of its simplicity.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the past, security was simply a matter of locking the door or storing files in a locked filing cabinet or safe. Today, paper is no longer the only medium of choice for housing information. Files are stored in computer databases as well as file cabinets. Hard drives and floppy disks hold many of our secret information. In the physical world, security is a fairly simple concept. If the locks on your house’s doors and windows are so strong that a thief cannot break in to steal your belongings, the house is secure. For further protection against intruders breaking through the locks, you might have security alarms. Similarly, if someone tries to fraudulently withdraw money from your bank account but the teller asks for identification and does not trust the thief’s story, your money is secure. When you sign a contract with another person, the signatures are the legal driving force that impels both parties to honor their word.

In the digital world, security works in a similar way. One concept is privacy, meaning that no one can break into files to read your sensitive data (such as medical records) or steal money (by, for example, obtaining credit card numbers or online brokerage accounts information). Privacy is the lock on the door. Another concept, data integrity, refers to a mechanism that tells us when something has been altered. That’s the alarm. By applying the practice of authentication, we can verify identities. That’s comparable to the ID required to withdraw money from a bank account (or conduct a transaction with an online broker). And finally, non repudiation is a legal driving force that impels people to honor their word.

As the Internet becomes a more pervasive part of daily life, the need for e-security becomes even more critical. Any organization engaged in online activity must assess and manage the e-security risks associated with this activity. Effective use of cryptographic techniques is at the core of many of these risk-management strategies. The most important security tool is cryptography.

According to Kerby, Hoffman et al (2011), encryption is the transformation of any kind of data into a form that is not understandable. Decryption is the opposition of the encryption which converts encrypted data into understandable form. A cipher is called the decrypted text of the original message or signal. Encryption is mostly used by governments and army related foundations which carry a high level of confidential information. In order to decrypt the encryption, a key which is often called decryption key is required for reverse operations. Without a correct decryption key, a message may not be decrypted. In such conditions, decryption must be extracted from the encryption patterns however, a loss of the decryption key mostly result in loss of decrypted message. Therefore, a decryption key must be secured and protected properly. The more complicated the encryption algorithm, the more difficult it becomes to break the cipher for accessing the message without authorization. There are many encryption algorithms proposed since the availability of earlier computer communications. Encryption algorithms are normally categorized differently according to their working principles. The most common encryption algorithms (Gonsai & Raval, 2014) used is such as AES, WPA, RSA, Two fish and DES. RSA algorithm (Milanov, 2009) is in the category of public-key based on cryptography implementations.

Before the modern era, cryptography was concerned solely with message confidentiality (i.e., encryption) — conversion of messages from a comprehensible form into an incomprehensible one, and back again at the other end, rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers without secret knowledge (namely, the key needed for decryption of that message). In recent decades, the field has expanded beyond confidentiality concerns to include techniques for message integrity checking, sender/receiver identity authentication, digital signatures, interactive proofs, and secure computation, amongst others.

Encryption attempts to ensure secrecy in communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats, but it have also had religious applications. Steganography (i.e., hiding even the existence of a message so as to keep it confidential) was also first developed in ancient times. An early example, from Herodotus, concealed a message – a tattoo on a slave’s shaved head – under the regrown hair. More modern examples of steganography include the use of invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks to conceal information.

The RSA algorithm is based on the mathematical equivalent, which is invented by the English mathematician Clifford Cocks. This equivalent is about factoring the large integers and then returning them back to their original values with reverse steps. This is called prime factorization of the selected prime numbers.

The idea behind the RSA algorithm is that, the data is encrypted with an equation. This equation yields a number which is then used for the reverse process. In the RSA, there are two numbers known are the public key and private key. The public key is open for distribution to any person as it would have no impact of the encrypted data security. The private key is the one that carries the high risk of data compromise in case of a loss.

As the Internet becomes a more pervasive part of daily life, the need for e-security becomes even more critical. Any organization engaged in online activity must assess and manage the e-security risks associated with this activity. Effective use of cryptographic techniques is at the core of many of these risk-management strategies. The most important security tool is cryptography. Before the modern era, cryptography was concerned solely with message confidentiality (i.e., encryption) conversion of messages from a comprehensible form into an incomprehensible one, and back again at the other end, rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers without secret knowledge (namely, the key needed for decryption of that message). In recent decades, the field has expanded beyond confidentiality concerns to include techniques for message integrity checking, sender/receiver identity authentication, digital signatures, interactive proofs, and secure computation, amongst others.

Encryption attempts to ensure secrecy in communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats, but it have also had religious applications. Steganography (i.e., hiding even the existence of a message so as to keep it confidential) was also first developed in ancient times. An early example, from Herodotus, concealed a message – a tattoo on a slave’s shaved head – under the regrown hair. More modern examples of steganography include the use of invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks to conceal information.

Data security in these contemporary times is a must. For your secrets to be secure, it may be necessary to add protections not provided by your computer operating systems. The built-in protections may be adequate in some cases. If no one ever tries to break into or steal data from a particular computer, its data will be safe. Or if the intruder has not learned how to get around the simple default mechanisms, they’re sufficient. But many attackers do have the skills and resources to break various security systems.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

The problem is security. The password method used in almost all commercial operating systems is probably not very strong against a sophisticated or unsophisticated attacker. The choice of data encryption comes next in the minds of those that want reduction of unauthorized access on confidential files or data. Security provided by the computer operating systems come with a preset super user account and password. The super user may have a password to control network functionality, another to conduct or access nightly backups, create accounts, and so on. For a cracker, logging on to a system as the super user is possibly the best way to collect data or do damage. If the super user has not changed an operating system’s preprogrammed passwords, the network is vulnerable to attack. Most crackers know these passwords, and their first attempt to break into a network is simply to try them. If an attacker cannot log on as the super user, the next best thing might be to figure out the user name and password of a regular user. It is used to be standard practice in most Universities and colleges, and in some commercial companies, to assign every student or employee an account with user name and initial password – the password being the user name. Everyone was instructed to log on and change the password, but often, hackers and crackers logged on before legitimate users had a chance.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to develop a computerized data encryption and decryption system and this can be achieved with the following objectives;

  1. To develop a system that improves the computer data security through encryption of data.
  2. The system should be a good means of safeguarding data in a system
  3. The system should enhance the integrity of data
  4. The system should be able to facilitate the use of more sophisticated tool against hacking, cracking, bugging of a system.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Data security in these contemporary times is a must. For your secrets to be secure, it may be necessary to add protections not provided by your computer operating systems. The built-in protections may be adequate in some cases. If no one ever tries to break into or steal data from a particular computer, its data will be safe. Or if the intruder has not learned how to get around the simple default mechanisms, they’re sufficient. But many attackers do have the skills and resources to break various security systems. If you decide to do nothing and hope that no skilled cracker targets your information, you may get lucky, and nothing bad will happen. One of the most important tools for protecting your data from an authorized access is Data Encryption, any of various methods that are used to turn readable files into gibberish. Even if an attacker obtains the contents of the file, it is gibberish. It does not matter whether or not the operating system protections worked.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the message security, message integrity, user authentication and key management of messages stored in systems used by individuals, companies, security agency in Nigeria in order to improve security and secrecy of data. Also this research work serves as a way of impacting knowledge to students in educational sectors on the important of safeguarding your data.


1.6 Limitations of the Study

Limitations encountered during this project study include

  1. Poor power supply when carrying out the research work
  2. Lack of good text and journals on cryptography searching information about computer security through Data Encryption and Key Hash Algorithm
  3. Inadequate finance
  4. Time constraint

1.7 Definition of Terms

i. Security:

The set of accesses controls and permission that are used to determine if a server can grant a request for a service or resource from a client.

ii. Password:

An identity that defines an authorized users of a computer in order to access to the system.

iii. Software:

A collection of computer programs that runs as a group to accomplish a set of objectives which could be referred to as job.

iv. System:

An organized unit which composed of two or more inter related parts that functions together to achieve a particular goal.

v. Encryption:

The process of converting ordinary information (plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (that is, cipher text).

vi. Decryption:

The reverse, moving from unintelligible cipher text to plain text.

vii. Algorithm:

This is a sequential way of solving a problem.

viii. Cryptography:

This is used to hide data from public view and to ensure that the integrity and privacy of any data sent across a network has not been compromised.

ix. Cipher:

Algorithm that handles the encryption and decryption process

x. Ciphertext:

The unreadable text created after encryption

xi. Key:

Secret parameter that determines the functional output of the crypto algorithm or cipher


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

This research work on impact of encryption and decryption of files is properly carried out to ascertain the challenges involved in data security. Files are stored in the disk as cipher text, only legitimate users can decrypt and view them. The study has been proved accurate and efficient. It ensures the security and privacy of important documents. Just encrypt the file is not enough, we must combine it with safe transmission. In order to provide a complete set of security mechanisms, we will focus on the file transfer function and continue to improve the stability of files on the system.


5.2 Recommendation

Having presented all that is needed for the successful implementation of this project. The following recommendations are suggested by the researcher aim at improving / correcting some lapses.

  1. Developers and engineers need to understand encryption and decryption in order to effectively build it into their products.
  2. Sales and marketing people need to understand how encryption and decryption works in order to prove the products they are selling are secure.
  3. Individuals are encouraged to use this software so as to secure important files that they don’t need another person to see.
  4. IT professionals need to understand how encryption and decryption works in order to deploy it properly in their systems.
  5. Even lawyers need to understand crypto because governments at the local, state, and national level are enacting new laws defining the responsibilities of entities holding the public’s private information.

5.3 Conclusion

It has been exciting carryout out this seminar work and it will be wise to conclude having exhausted to a large extent, the requirements for the seminar. The benefits to be derived from this seminar work cannot be qualified just in terms of money. It ensures efficiency, accuracy, speed, security and reliability.

In today’s world, where information play a particularly important role, the transmission and the storage of data must be maximally secure. Quantum computers pose a significant risk to both conventional public key algorithms (such as RSA, ElGamal, ECC and DSA) and symmetric key algorithms (3DES, AES). Year by year it seems that we are getting closer to create a fully operational universal quantum computer that can utilize strong quantum algorithms such as Shor’s algorithm and Grover’s algorithm. The consequence of this technological advancement is the absolute collapse of the present public key algorithms that are considered secure, such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems.


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