Design Of A Weather Forecasting Package For Aviation Industry
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I dedicate this research to Almighty God, who had led me through this course of study.
I wish to express my profound gratitude to God Almighty for His inspiration and grace throughout the course and also making it possible for me to complete this project. My special thanks to my parents ————–, for their moral and financial support during the course of study.
My sincere appreciation goes to all Lecturers in Computer Science Department ———— University and particularly to my Supervisor —————. I am indeed grateful to all my friends, for their advice and concern.
Table Of Contents
- Tittle Page
- Approval Page
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Objectives Of The Study
- 1.3 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.4 Scope Of The Study
- 1.5 Significant Of The Study
- 1.6 Limitations Of The Study
- 1.7 Definition Of Terms
Chapter Two:Review Of Related Literature
- 2.1 History Of Aviation
- 2.2 Definitions Of Weather Forecasting
- 2.3 Method Of Weather Forecasting
- 2.3.1 Climatology Method
- 2.3.2 Analog Method
- 2.3.3 Persistence And Trends Method
- 2.3.4 Numerical Weather Prediction
Chapter Three:System Design & Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Hardware Components
- 3.3 Software Implemented
- 3.4 System Design
- 3.5 Block Diagram Of The System
- 3.6 Hardware Connections
- 3.7 Arduino Software
- 3.8 System Flowchart
- 3.9 Circuit Diagram
Chapter Four:Results And Analysis
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Results
- 4.3 Analysis
- 4.4 Limitations
Chapter Five:Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusions
- 5.2 Recommendations
Design and implementation of weather foresting package for aviation industry is discussed in this research work using Sam Mbakwe Airport, Owerri – Imo State as a case study. With its objectives research work as follows:To help aviation meteorologists issue accurate weather forecast.
To enable aviation industry to make decision on control based on information given etc. This research work reviews the background and general idea of weather forecasting which motivated me to go into the research work and problem faced by aviation industry. Inaccuracy issue of weather forecast the use of manual methods in weather forecast and also in storing or keeping records and its analysis.
Some of the methods used in forecasting are as follows:Persistence method, synoptic forecasting, statistical method, synoptic forecasting, statistical method, all narrowing or suggesting better ways of weather forecasting.
This project is focused on the construction of wireless weather monitoring system able to sense temperature, humidity and light intensity for normal use by regular users, application in the aviation industry.
Every day, millions of weather – based economic decisions are made in transportation, agriculture, power, construction, and other sectors of the economy. Weather conditions affect the entire economy in many ways both directly and indirectly, Better weather forests bring economic opportunities to almost every sector of the economy.
Weather forecasts are critical to the commercial and private transportation sector, including airline, shipping and trucking industries, nationally and internationally. Airlines, for example rely on short term forecasts to best position their aircraft and adjust flight routes.
1.1. Background Of The Study
The art of weather forecasting began with early civilizations using reoccurring astronomical and metrological events to help them monitor seasonal changes in the weather (MISTIC House, 2008) Around 650 BC the Babylonians tried to predict short term weather changes based on the appearance of clouds and optical phenomena such as haloes. By 300B.C Chinese astronomers had developed a calendar that divided the year into 24 festivals, each festival associated with a different type of weather.
Around 340 B.C the Greek Philosopher Aristotle wrote Metrological, a philosophical treatise that included theories about the formation of rain, clouds, hail, wind, thunder, lightening, and hurricanes. In addition, topics such s astronomy, geography and chemistry were also addressed. Aristotle made some remarkably acute observations concerning the weather, along with some significant errors. And his four–volume text was considered by many to be the authority of weather theory for almost 200 years. Although many of Aristotle’s claims were erroneous, it was not until about 17th century that many of his ideas were overthrown. Throughout the centuries, attempts have been made to produce forecasts based on weather lore and personal observations.
However, by the end of the Renaissance, it had become increasingly evident that the speculations of the natural philosophers were inadequate and that greater knowledge of the necessary to further our understanding of the atmosphere (Wilson,2007). In order to do these instruments were needed to measure the properties. The atmosphere, such as moisture, temperature, and pressure. The first known design in western civilization for a hygrometer an instrument to measure the humidity of air was described by Nicholas Cusa (C.1401 – 1464, German) in the mid fifteenth century. Galileo Galilsi (1564 – 1642, Italian) invented an early thermometer in 1592 or shortly thereafter, and Evangelista Torricelli (1608 – 1647, Italian invented the barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure in 1643.
While these meteorological instruments were being refined during the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, other related observational theoretical and the technological developments also contributed to our knowledge of the atmosphere, and individuals at scattered locations began to make and record atmospheric measurements. The invention of the telegraph and the emergence of telegraph networks in the mid nineteenth century allowed the routine transmission of weather observations to and from observers and compilers.
Using these data, crude weather maps were drawn and surface wind patterns and storm systems could be identified and studied. Weather observing stations began appearing all across the globe, eventually spawning the birth of synoptic weather forecasting, based on the compilation and analysis many observations taken simultaneously over a wide area, in the 1860s.
With the formation of regional and global metrological observation networks in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more data were becoming available for observation based weather forecasting. A great stride in monitoring weather at high at altitudes was made in the 1920s with the invention of the radiosonde. Small light weight boxes equipped with weather instruments and a radio transmitter, radiosondes are carried high into the atmosphere by a hydrogen or helium – filled balloon that ascends to an altitude of about 30 kilometers before bursting (Gaffen, 2008).
During the ascent, these instruments transmit temperature moisture, and pressure data (Called soundings) back to ground station. Three, the data are processed and made available for constructing weather maps or insertion into computer models for weather prediction. Today, radiosondes are launched every twelve (12) hours from hundreds of ground stations all over the world.
1.2 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of this research work are as follows:
- To help aviation meteorologists issue accurate weather forecast.
- To enable aviation meteorologists issue weather forecast with minimum delay.
- To enable Aviation industry to make decision on flight control based on information given.
- To study and use advance programming language as logical tool for forecasting weather conditions.
- To make sure of effective analysis, design implementation, and also provide solution to state problems in Aviation weather forecast.
1.3 Statement Of The Problem
The current method of weather forecasting in the Aviation industry impeded by the following problems
- Inaccuracy issue of weather forecast
- Delay from the head quarters (meteorological services Headquarters in Lagos) in forecasting weather conditions.
- The use of manual methods in weather forecast and also in storing or keeping recordings of previous measurements of weather elements and its analysis
1.4 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this project will be to design workable easy to use and reliable software package used to forecast weather conditions for Aviation industry (Sam Mbakwe Airport).
The system designed is only able to sense three weather conditions; temperature, humidity and light. Although, the major benefit of the wireless monitoring station is being able to receive information about the weather of a particular environment without being there in a cost effective manner by making use of the GSM technology, the system requires an uninterrupted power supply to effectively perform its functions.
The scope of this project design extends to the following range and deals with the total automation of the following:
- The data entry section which facilitates easy entry of data obtained from measurements of various instruments.
- The data base: The data entered is stored in a data base for record purpose and also for easy sorting of a particular record(s)
- The weather analysis: This analyses a given record of daily weather measurements and also permits the statistics of the data to be viewed.
- The weather forecast: The impact of weather and its remarks is stated.
1.5 Significant Of The Study
The significant of this study is to design a weather forecasting package for Aviation industry that would provide information concerning the weather conditions on a daily basis, and information would be useful for
- Aircraft landing
- Aircraft take-off
- Making decisions on route changes and inconveniences; and
- Discomfort arising from altitudinal changes in flight.
1.6 Limitations Of The Study
One of the limitations the researcher encountered was the difficulty in getting information and relevant facts about the current system from the staff of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Imo Airport.
Another limitation encountered by the researcher is financial constraints, especially in transport fare to the area of study for the collection of data and also the cost of getting information from relevant journals, books materials printed – out from internet, etc.
Finally, lack of relevant textbooks related to the study useful making citations.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
A scale that indicates the wind seed using the effect wind has on certain familiar objects.
A form of precipitation that consists of water droplets less than 5mm.
Water that has condensed closed to ground level, producing cloud of very small droplets that reduces visibility to less than one km (three thousand and three hundred feet).
Any and all forms of visible electrical discharged produced by thunder storms.
The study of the phenomena of the atmosphere and all the processes that take place in the atmosphere and the relationships with processes at the surface of the earth.
A balloon carrying instruments for measuring conditions in the upper atmosphere.
A type of precipitation that is in the form of water droplets larger than 0.5mm.
Precipitation composed of white or translucent ice crystals. Snow forms in cold clouds by the direct transfer of water vapor to ice Thunderstorm (or thundershower) – A local storm, produced by a cumulonimbus cloud, and accompanied by thunder and lightning.
State of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold wetness or dryness, clam or storm, clearness or cloudiness. Also weather is the meteorological day today variations of the atmosphere and their effects on life and human activity. It includes temperature, pressure, humidity clouds, wind, precipitation and fog.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.