Design And Implementation Of Crime Investigation Using Biometric Approach

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Design And Implementation Of Crime Investigation Using Biometric Approach


Abstract


Reliable criminal suspects’ recognition is an important problem in crime investigation process. Biometrics recognition is becoming an Irreplaceable part of many identification systems. While successful in some niche markets, the Biometrics technology has not yet delivered its Promise of full proof automatic crime suspects’ Recognition, especially in a developing country like Nigeria. The study proposes and implements a Biometrics-based crime investigation system for the Nigerian police force. The software was designed using visual basic programming Language and MySQL for data storage.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Criminality is part and parcel of human nature and society. That is why no society can claim to be completely crime free. But the types of criminal behaviour tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society. It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level of development and as Madden and Chiu (1998) mentioned, uneven distribution of income (and wealth) tends to experience an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes and the like. What is worrisome, however, is that the police which are meant to be the antidote to criminality appear to be getting overwhelmed by the phenomenon.

The criminals appear to be ahead of the police such that the latter now only react to the commission of crimes and usually after the offenders might have left the scene making things appear as if the original emphasis on crime prevention has been completely lost Aside other complaints, there are institutional constraints, which contribute to the uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining their capacity to deliver efficient crime control via proper and prompt investigation and policing services. These include inadequate manpower, lack of expertise, lack of adequate equipment, low level of education, low morale, lack of training facilities and lack of technological knowhow, etc.

In developed countries; computers have been used in crime detection for some decades. Computer-Based Criminal. Records Systems were the first of such systems deployed as an attempt to record a person’s criminal history. Before the introduction and the application of computers in criminal records, crime investigation, and detection, most criminal records or other criminal related activities was carried out using the manual or traditional approach in the process of data processing, which involves the use of paper files, manual skills and human brain work.

The traditional approach of crime investigation is usually time-consuming, resulting in a lot of delay and often generally inefficient leading to high cost. On the other hand, the use of computers in the management of criminal records and crime investigation tends to be very efficient due to the fact that less time is spent on the investigation of crimes since it is automated; giving accurate and reliable criminal investigation results.

With the introduction of biometrics technology which is an advanced computer techniques now widely adopted as a front line security measure for both identity verification and crime detection, and also offers an effective crime deterrent.

Biometrics embraces a range of techniques such as fingerprinting and handwriting recognition for identity verification using physical data and behavioural patterns . In the recent past, fingerprint images were obtained by “ink- technique” which is also referred as off- line fingerprint acquisition . It is essentially based on the development of pattern recognition systems, today electronic or optical sensors such as cameras and scanning devices are used to capture images, recordings or measurements of a person’s unique characteristics. This digital data is then encoded and can be stored and searched on demand, via a computer. Such biometric search is not only very rapid (often taking place in real time), it is also a process that is accepted globally in establishing forensic evidence in a law court . It cannot be over emphasized that there is need to provide for adequate, efficient and effective technological knowhow especially in the area of crime investigation which will make their job simpler and faster, as well as prompt and effective in their service delivery. Consequently, this project will seek to design a computerized criminal investigation system for The Nigeria Police Force in Ikeja, Lagos State, using Biometrics approach.


1.2 Statement of the Study

Crime investigation is always a tedious process which requires accuracy. Unfortunately, in current method of investigating crime, accuracy of data cannot be guaranteed. This has led to the prosecution of innocent citizens and freedom of the guilty ones. In some crime scenes where the culprit left some body traits like blood or fingerprint, the usefulness of those traits is zero because there is not ready technology to decipher the criminal from the blood or fingerprint.

Also, details about a criminal is written and stored on a paper format. Generating a case filing number for each of the cases is cumbersome because it is not easy to trace the file number of the last recorded case and this has led to duplication Cases File and referencing to existing Criminal cases becomes difficult.

Furthermore criminal records are sometimes damaged by water, pest or fire outbreak and can easily be altered by an unauthorized user. Loss of those files can lead to lack of justice. Even if the criminal is caught again, he cannot be linked to the previously committed crimes.

These problems have led to the development of computerized system to investigate crime. Our solution captures the details of each criminal alongside their fingerprint and stores them in an electronic format. The system is protected as only authorized users can access the system. It also cannot be destroyed by natural hazards and due to the presence of the fingerprint if a criminal is caught again, with scan of the fingerprint, his history will be displayed.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to design and implement a crime investigation system with biometric integration. To achieve the stated aim, the following specific objectives were laid.

  1. Develop a system can capture, store and display crime records in a user-friendly manner.
  2. Integrate fingerprint capturing feature which capture suspects fingerprint during registration.
  3. Crime records of any suspect can be retrieved by simply scanning the suspects fingerprint.
  4. The system will be secured and can only be accessed by authorized users.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The importance of this biometric crime investigation cannot be over-emphasized. For crime investigating departments,

  1. It will help in the reduction of redundancies and inconsistencies.
  2. Ensure user defined rules to ensure the integrity of data.
  3. Enable data sharing across all applications.
  4. Ensures data access authorization.
  5. Have an automatic intelligent backup and recovery procedure of data.
  6. Improve Integrity.

For the general public, it will help curb crime and bring relative peace the people as justice is served to the culprit. This work will also benefit scholars researching the field of biometrics and security as it will serve as a reference point to them or starting point for future researches.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The study covers the State headquarters of the Nigerian Police in Lagos state and proposes a biometric approach to Crime investigation for a more clear and successful Crime investigation. Biometrics recognition is becoming an irreplaceable part of many identification systems. While successful in some niche markets, the biometrics technology has not yet delivered its promise of full proof automatic crime suspects’ recognition, especially in a developing country like Nigeria. The study proposes and implements a biometrics-based crime investigation system for the Nigerian Police Force. The software will be designed using Visual BASIC programming language. The limitation of this work is that it focuses on the Nigerian Police force in Lagos and limited to their actions. It is not advisable to be used professionally without upgrading it features.


1.6 Research Methodology

The methodology adopted in this project is the linear sequential life cycle model (waterfall model). This model is based on sequential design process. This methodology was adopted because of its flexibility to researchers in terms of the se8uential approach to solving problems. This means that at any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In this model, phases do not overlap. Also the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase se8uentially and it is very simple to understand and to use.


1.7 Organization of the Study

This project is organized under five chapters.

  1. Chapter one talks about the general overview of the research and states the problems I intend to solve and how I am going to achieve the expected results.
  2. Chapter reviews related literature. It contains an introduction and a literature review on crime investigation, a general overview of biometric capturing and processing.
  3. Chapter three contains the methodology for data collection, design of the system and analysis of the system.
  4. Chapter four contains implementation and testing of the developed system. It also contains tools used in the development of the system, results and evaluation of the developed system.
  5. Chapter five deals with the conclusion and recommendations for further research work

1.8 Definition of Terms

Biometrics:

It refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics that can be automatically checked.

Convict:

Declared to be guilty of a criminal offence by the verdict of a jury.

Crime:

An action which constitutes a serious offence against an individual or the state and is punishable by law.

Criminal:

A person who has committed a crime

Suspect:

A person who has committed a crime

Victim:

A person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident.

Suspect:

Believe to be guilty of a crime or offence, without certain proof


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Future Work

5.1 Summary

Accurate and reliable identification is an important issue in crime detection. The biometric recognition is emerging as a sound scientific justifiable tool in investigative procedure. It holds the potential to solve the criminal activities. The augmentation of wide varieties of criminal activities and advances in biometric technology mean that biometrics will have a more marked impact in crime detection in coming future.

However many improvements in the recognition systems can be expected if recent findings in applied mathematics, statistics and computer sciences are implemented in biometric science.


5.2 Conclusion

A successful implementation of the Biometrics-Based Crime Records Investigation System will greatly increase the efficiency of the Nigerian

Police Force officers and will help to ensure that criminal records are managed properly monitoring of criminal suspects in the country. the problem of delay in retrieving criminal suspects records for reference purposes and for appropriate court action or prosecution to be taken can be reduced drastically and the efficiency in the management of criminal records and investigation of criminal case being rendered by the Nigerian Police Force will greatly be improved upon. Thus, this study on successful deployment would have great importance to the Nigerian police as the Computerized Criminal Investigation System aiding prompt tracking of criminals, proper management of criminal records and detection of criminals. It would also be relevant to the court of law as it can be admitted as evidence in a criminal law suit. The academia will also benefit from the study in the area of knowledge acquisition.


5.3 Future Work

Although the developed system met the intended objectives, some modifications can be made for the software to be used across security agencies. The system can be designed using online technologies as to be available from any location and accessed with browser through any internet enabled device.


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