Design And Implementation Of An Electronic Government System (E-Government)

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Design And Implementation Of An Electronic Government System (E-Government)


Abstract


Given the fact that more and more governments invest heavily in e-government design and implementation, e-government has become an evolving and important research area in the information technology field. Most, if not all, currently published e-government strategies are based on successful experiences from developed countries, which may not be directly applicable to developing countries. Based on a literature review, this study summarizes differences between developed/developing countries. It identifies key factors for a successful e-government implementation and proposes an implementation framework. A new system was developed using Microsoft asp.net and html. This language was chosen because of its syntax and easy features for developing online applications.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of problem
  • 1.2 Aims/objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Significance of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of study
  • 1.5 Organization of study
  • 1.6 Limitations of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms used

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 A Conceptual Framework Of E-Government Implementation
  • 2.1.1 Nel Factor 1: Network Access
  • 2.1.2 Nel Factor 2: Network Learning
  • 2.1.3 Nel Factor 3: Network Economy
  • 2.1.4 Nel Factor 4: Network Policy
  • 2.2 Phases of E-Government Development
  • 2.3 Centralized/Decentralized Technology Management.
  • 2.4 Performance Measures

Chapter Three

System Design and Analysis

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 System analysis
  • 3.3 Feasibility study
  • 3.4 Method of data collection
  • 3.5 Problems of existing system
  • 3.6 User preparation
  • 3.7 Objectives of the new design
  • 3.8 Input specification
  • 3.9 Output specification

Chapter Four

System Implementation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Justification of the programming language
  • 4.3 Program flowchart
  • 4.4 Program structure
  • 4.5 System flowchart
  • 4.6 Implementation details
  • 4.7 System testing
  • 4.8 Training and re-training of staff
  • 4.9 Change over procedure
  • 4.9.1 Direct change over
  • 4.9.2 Parallel change over
  • 4.9.3 Pilot change over
  • 4.9.4 Recommended mode of change over
  • 4.10 Location and installation
  • 4.11 Maintenance
  • 4.12 Program documentation

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

With the Internet surging, governments at all levels are utilizing it to reinvent their structure and efficiency, coining the term “e-government” to describe this initiative. Bill Gates of Microsoft claims that e-government is one of the most exciting fields in electronic commerce in the near future. E-government is a cost-effective solution that improves communication between government agencies and their constituents by providing access to information and services online. The Economist magazine estimates that the potential savings of implementing e-government could be as much as $110 billion and 144billion English Pounds in the U.S. and Europe, respectively (Symonds, 2000).Though a new subject, e-government has attracted more and more research interest and focus from industries, national governments, and universities (Carter &Belanger, 2005; Chircu & Lee, 2003;Huang, Siau, & Wei, 2004; Jain & Patnayakuni, 2003; Moon & Norris,2005; Navarra & Cornford, 2003), such as IBM’s Institute for Electronic Government and various “E-Government Task Forces” in different countries (Huang, D’Ambra, & Bhalla, 2002).

E-Government is a permanent commitment made by government to improve the relationship between the private citizen and the public sector through enhanced, cost-effective, and efficient delivery of services, information, and knowledge. Broadly defined, e-government includes the use of all information and communication technologies, from fax machines to wireless palm pilots, to facilitate the daily administration of government, exclusively as an Internet-driven activity that improves citizen’s access to government information, services, and expertise to ensure citizen’s participation in, and satisfaction with government process (UN & ASPA, 2001).

Narrowly defined, e government is the production and delivery of government services through IT applications, used to simplify and improve transactions between governments and constituents, businesses, and other government agencies (Sprecher, 2000). The development and implementation of e-government brings about impacts and changes to the structure and functioning of the public administration (Snellen, 2000). Unlike the traditional bureaucratic model where information flows only vertically and rarely between departments, E- government links new technology with legacy systems internally and, in turn, links government information infrastructures externally with everything digital (Tapscott, 1995).

Moreover, e-government will help breaking down agency and jurisdictional barriers to allow more integrated whole of- government services across the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local). Government in the offline environment can be difficult to access, which is especially problematic for people in regional and remote locations. E-Government offers a potential to dramatically increase access to information and services. E-Government makes it easier for citizens to participate in and contribute to governmental issues.

Various stages of e-government reflect the degree of technical sophistication and interaction with users (Hiller & Belanger, 2001). A broad model with a three-phase and dual-pronged strategy for implementing electronic democracy is proposed by Watson and Mundy (2000) (see Figure 1). The three phases draw on the principles of skill development (Quinn, Anderson, & Finkelstein,1996), and the prongs echo the dual foundations of democratic government — effectiveness and efficiency. Note that we identify e government and e-politics as elements of e-democracy.

E-Government informs citizens about their representatives and how they may be contacted and it improves government efficiency by enabling citizens to pay transactions online; whereas e-politics is the use of Internet technology to improve the effectiveness of political decisions by making citizens aware of the how and why of political decision making and facilitating their participation in this process. The initiation phase focuses on providing citizens with a single point of access to government information and Web enabling government payments are the critical initial goals. For a minimum level of political involvement, citizens need to know who represents them and what is happening in the political scene.

When the e-democracy proceeds to the infusion phase, nearly all governments adopt the principles of e-government. Online review and payment applications are widely installed. Citizens can make most government payments via the Web and electronic bill presentment is the standard. Government becomes more efficient via two major approaches. Small governments opt for an application service provider (ASP) solution, while large governments implement in-house systems. An initiation stage is necessary because governments need to create the infrastructure (e.g., software firms, methodologies, consulting skills), acquaint governments and citizens with the concept of e-government, and learn how to scale from a handful to tens of thousands of online government services.

Once the foundation of skills and knowledge has been built and the idea has gained currency, large-scale adoption is feasible. With the further development of e government, citizens will not be satisfied with a one-size-fits-all solution, and customization will be demanded. During the customization phase, electronic democracy implements a one-to-one relationship between citizen and government. To further improve their personal efficiency, all citizens have an electronically maintained, personal profile of their financial interactions with government. An address change, for example, is a single transaction that automatically notifies all government systems. In addition, citizens can get a detailed breakdown of their particular government payments so that they are more directly connected with how their taxes and fees are spent (e.g., amount contributed to education).


1.1 Statement of Problem

Developing countries lack the sufficient knowledge and skill to develop suitable and effective strategies for establishing and promoting e-government. While E-Government strategies have had a tremendous impact on the way government interact with their citizens in developed countries. It is my aim in this project to develop an efficient e-government system that will aid in government’s interaction with its citizens.


1.2 Aims / Objectives of the Study

This study is aimed at developing an e-government and organization development with the following terms of reference:

  1. An examination of the national and international literature in relation to the organization development aspects of e-government-led change.
  2. A detailed examination of instances of good practice, and leading practices, within the civil service and also the wider public sector, in relation to significant organization change as part of the adoption of e-government solutions.
  3. A thorough review of lessons learnt in respect of how the organization development aspects of e-government might be furthered more effectively within the imo public service, so as to provide good practice guidance for managers.

1.3 Significance of the Study

The following case study is used to demonstrate how the proposed e government implementation framework can be used to analyze different e government strategies adopted in imo state. It presents a snapshot of current e-government implementation in imo state in comparing their e-government implementation strategy.


1.4 Scope of Study

The researcher is concerned with an e-government system which is the use of information technology (IT) to integrate government and its services for citizen, business, government, and other institutional uses.


1.5 Organization of Study

Chapter two reviews the related literature under the following sub-headings:

Chapter three handles the system methodology analysis and design as follows: introduction, the user interface, hardware and software requirements, user documentation, system backup, system maintenance, etc.

Chapter four is concerned with the system implementation and programming.

Chapter five comprises of summary, conclusion and recommendation.


1.6 Limitations of the Study

There are some limitations or constraints confronting this study, they are as follows

1. Time:

I had a very little time to carry out this research, as a result of the fact that i combine the research work with my academic studies.

2. Finance:

however, finance is another constraint i experience while carryout this research. The inadequate of finance to carry out this research slow down the research work. Despite the limitations every effort was geared towards accomplishing this project.


1.7 Definition of Terms Used

E-Democracy:

Electronic Democracy is the idea of and process through which information technologies (particularly the Internet) are used to improve democratic processes and participation.

E-Government:

Electronic government, or e-government, is the use of information technology (IT) to integrate government and its services for citizen, business, government, and other institutional uses.

E-Government Strategy:

The intended process, action plans, vision and goals of a governmental entity by using e-government.

Enterprise Architecture:

A comprehensive framework used to manage and align business processes, IT software and hardware, human resources, operations and projects with an organization’s overall strategy. The intent of enterprise architecture is to determine how an organization can most effectively achieve its current and future objectives.

Help Desk:

The help desk assists computer users in problems that may arise while using the state’s webpage or programs. The state may use telephone, email, instant messaging, or other technologies to address questions or concerns.

Information Technology (IT):

IT involves the management of information using technological tools. IT most often refers to the use of a computer to process, store and secure information.

Integration:

Total integration of all services across administrative and departmental boundaries is defined as a system wherein all services can be accessed from one portal without differentiation between government agencies134.

Open Source:

Open Source referring to electronic government, indicates access to computer code, or language, which is used to design programs and software. Open Source code allows others to modify computer programs to fit their unique needs.

Open Standards:

Publicly available and implemental standards. A branch, department, or agency may introduce open standards to maintain a free flow of information and transparency.

Outsourcing:

The practice of sending jobs or duties to an external body. This decision may involve efficiencies and cost savings along with comparative advantage.

Redundancy:

In information technology, redundant describes computer, network, telecommunication and operating systems which have a duplicated method installed to back up primary resources in case they fail


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Summary

In summary, this project introduces ASP.Net and visual studio as one of the computer programming in web environment. The methods developed are so numerous and there are such a variety of basic ideas that we cannot describe individually or even attempt to summarize them completely within the context or scope of this work.

However, this work has presented a background on some well-known procedures that have in some way provided motivation for the implementation of e-government system.

Investigation and design of a software program was carried out in replacement of the present manual system, as regards the problems arising from the modern-day government day to day transactions. The project will help/aid in the use of information technology (IT) to integrate government and its services for citizen, business, government, and other institutional uses.


5.1 Conclusion

Due to the considerable differences between developed and developing countries, the e government strategies used in developed countries needs to be carefully studied and effective strategies needs to be integrated in the development of a reliable e-government system. For that reason, the current study intends to do some initial work to bridge this gap. It compares strategic issues and implementations of e-government between developed and developing countries. More specifically, the following issues are addressed:

  1. Proposing a conceptual framework that includes the critical success factors influencing e-government strategies and implementations for developed and developing countries.
  2. Using a case study to illustrate how the proposed framework can be used to analyze different e-government strategies in a developed country (the U.S.) and a developing country (Nigeria).

5.2 Recommendation

Sequel to the achieved objective of this research work, it is necessary to adopt it in order to avoid data loss and delay in processing of governments transactions. Banks should speed up their action in clearing of cheques issued to avoid unnecessary delay. In line with these findings, the recommendation made based on the following measures:

Limitation of the Access Rights:

Limiting of the access rights is the act of defining the right which allow or delay to the system and users access to confidential information. Because the site only provide specific information that only needs to be key in, the access rights to the database must be limited on the specific tables.

Using Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS):

This is provided to prevent the computer and network from going off and un-stable electricity supply. It also can protect data and network equipment from any damage caused by the electricity.

Increase Physical Security:

There are several ways to provide the physical security such as providing security persons, place the server in safe and secure location so as to stay away from rain, flood or crowded people, place the important data in the different location and make backups in the different location.

Update the System Periodically:

Persons who will be doing the system update should be readily available and should have a good knowledge of web management. Patches which are provided by the software producer must be downloaded and installed to the system.

Personal approaches:

There are several approaches which can be given to the user, such as give the clear instruction to the user, educate the operator, give the procedure and discipline of using equipment to the operator and administrator.


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