Design And Construction Of Intruder Detector Alarm System With Direction / Location Display

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Engineering

Design And Construction Of Intruder Detector Alarm System With Direction / Location Display


This project work deals on the Design and Construction of Intruder Detector Alarm System with Direction/Location Display which is capable of detecting intrusion at any location, sound and alarm and display the exact location of the intruder using seven segment displays. This project work is realized using top down methodology with active and passive components available in the local market. It is realized in different modules, all combined to form one function unit. The inputs are opto-couplers configured with laser diodes and light Dependent Resistor. (LDR) which act as the electronic eyes installed at the sensory points.

The control unit is made up of one short delay circuit, audio frequency generator, priority encoder and decoder, piezo-buzzer and single digit seven segment display. The system is packaged in a well furnished wooden material. This system does not record/display the intruder. In a case of simultaneous intrusion, the display shows the location with the highest priority. And the system is powered from MAINS supply. The result being a system which can detect intrusion,, sound an audible alarm and displays the exact location of the intruder. It has a wide a range of application in surveillance especially in industrial home security.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Previous Work
  • 1.4 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.5 Project Structure

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Research
  • 2.1.1 Burglar Alarms
  • 2.2 Transducers

Chapter Three

System Design

  • 3.1 Microcontroller Circuit Design.
  • 3.2 Pin Description
  • 3.3 Interfacing Components

Chapter Four

Software Development, Simulation And Construction

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Port Pin Assignment
  • 4.3 Program Flow
  • 4.4 Algorithm
  • 4.5 Flow Chart
  • 4.6 Simulation And Results
  • 4.7 Construction
  • 4.8 Circuit Development
  • 4.9 Fabrication

Chapter Five

Performance Evaluation And Results

  • 5.1 Introduction.

Chapter Six

Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 6.1 Conclusion
  • 6.2 Recommendation And Future Work
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Security has been defined by Viola (2001) as safety from harm. It is a term that has different dimensions in psychology, public safety, defense and military matters and information access. Safety, also by Viola (2001)is defined as protection from action from without or subversion from within. Security and safety are always intertwined and it is impossible to design a security system without taking into account the safety of the object or person into consideration. Security in embedded systems is usually an afterthought.

Considering the current global security environment, the importance of good physical security is difficult to ignore. Physical security services are becoming a private rather than public service i.e. individuals and organizations tend to hire private security firms and install security equipment and use the police as the back. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2004), private security officers outnumber police officers by more than 2 to 1 in the United States of America. Recent reports suggest that this trend holds true for both daily security operations responding to terrorism, natural disasters. Physical security has seen less attention and it is primarily an applied field, it has no dedicated line of research. Instead, it is scattered through fields like engineering, computer science, chemistry and physics as well as social sciences such as criminology, sociology and psychology. Providing security relies on two main elements:

  • Equipment or technology and
  • People

Without any statistical proof, it is the belief that major funding goes more into equipment security research than people security research. Others might disagree with this point of view for example, Pieters (2017) stated that General Eugene Habiger (retired), former commander of US strategic nuclear forces and advisor to the US department of Energy was quoted saying that “good security is 20% equipment and 80% people”. Human security, according to xiango (2015), has the tendency to want to cover more ground than actually securing the ground. Human security has several reoccurring problems which include:

  • Disgruntled employees
  • Professionalism
  • Job characteristics
  • Security structure and climate for security

These reoccurring problems tend to disturb or halt the work to be done or carried out.

Security system are gaining increase importance in recent times to protect life and valuable resources, many advanced method of providing security have been developed and are in use in the last few decades. Of this one important area is the security system required for military /strategic applications, which has advanced greatly. But such systems being complex and expensive are useful to high end application only. However with recent progress in technology and the growing need for increased security in civilian and other applications, many low cost solutions for security system have now emerged. In the field of Burglar Alarm Systems using modern approaches has become a major means of providing security in all applications, both military and civilian.

Due to high state of insecurity being experienced in the entire world the need to keep the occupants of the office aware of any intrusion in to their premises forms part of the project.

1.2 Problem Statement

Security is an important aspect of all our lives. A secure environment tends to give individuals rest of mind. However, with a global recession occurring, people have resorted to less honorable means to make ends meet. Theft rates (in a typical Nigerian University) have increased causing disharmony in the areas where such events occur. This sometimes leads to unpleasant occurrences such as fights and sometimes injuries. These injuries are either sustained when the culprit is caught and a mob action is decided upon. The aim of the proposed design is to reduce such occurrences by alerting the appropriate quarters while an unauthorized entrance into a room occurs. The relevance of this paper cannot be overemphasized.

1.3 Previous Work

In Nigeria most security solutions are provided by security firms. These systems have been operation for some time which mostly is foreign developed. These translates that they tend to be expensive and hard to maintain because suppliers keep on producing new product and not supporting their older versions.

However this project is geared to development of office grown simple security system that meets the same needs as commercially available system.

The final product will be cheaper, easy to maintain and foolproof.

1.4 Objectives Of The Study

This project is aimed at designing, simulating and implanting a cheap and reliable alarm system using Small Scale Integrated and Medium Scale Integrated chips that can detect and warn on external intrusion.

The system has to satisfy the following:

  1. Ensure the security of an office by deterring person intending to burglar and warning the occupants of office of any unauthorized entry into their premise.
  2. Provide psychological satisfaction of being secure to the office occupant.

1.5 Project Structure

Project was designed in the following modules:

1. House Intrusion Module:

This module consists of motion detectors placed strategically in concealed location this sensors when activated should activate the following devices in the following sequence:-

  • Activate buzzer to warn the occupants.
  • If present, activate the cameras •Finally it should set off the alarm
2. The Control Unit Module:

This is the decision making center that interprets the various inputs from the sensor and makes the appropriate logic decision.

3. Arm and Disarm Module:

This is for arming and disarming the system.

4. Alarm Module:

This is for warning and deterring the intruders.

Block diagram:


Chapter Six

Conclusion And Recommendation

6.1 Conclusion

The ideal security system is yet to be designed so far. In this project an attempt has been made to come up with a cheap but effective security for small offices.

The software developed to run the microcontrollers run according to the specifications and in simulation proved to be very effective as a security system. Despite all the odds and difficulties encountered in regard to resource availability all the project objectives were achieved.

There was also an attempt to provide possible designs possible to implement this project. The design type was chosen here was mainly to deal with average standard Nigerian office. To secure large building and compounds this type of design needs to be improved. This could be by use of addressed sensors that would be sending information to control unit instead of use of polling the sensors. This would enable many sensors to be connected to the microcontroller thus resulting in a stable complex system that cover huge building and include other features such as fire alarm, employee clocking in and out, chemical gas warning and much more. The design here is not conclusive but needs a lot of improvement and development before such system can commercially be available.
A few of improvement are mentioned here below.

6.2 Recommendation And Future Work

As so far the system not yet perfect. This indicated that there is still huge room for future development. As the need of more secure and complex system keeps on growing there is need in depth research and development to keep up with the needs of customers as there are the most important people who keep designers in business as the profit is all we look for.

This project has a lot of future expansion this would be as follows

  1. Use of SMS (short massage services) to send control command as for example to arm or disarm the system.
  2. The Atmel Company provides various components such as keelog that makes it possible to include wireless control. this could enable disabling of the system as one enters to the protected area and enable all the sensors on leaving. This can also be applied to remote sensor to avoid wired connection.
  3. Use of addressed remote sensors that sends request to the control unit instead of polling damp sensors.
  4. Possibility of dial tone control if connected to analogue telephone .In this one need to connect the system to analogue telephone and call from anywhere the send DTMF tones to configure the systems.

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