Banditry Invasion Of Nigeria And Its Effect On Community Development

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Banditry Invasion Of Nigeria And Its Effect On Community Development


Abstract


This study was carried out on banditry invasion of Nigeria and its effect on community development using Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State as a case study. The study specifically set to ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State, investigate the possible causes of banditry invasion in communities in Zamfara State, find out the extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State, and determine how banditry invasion has affected community development in Zamfara State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident of Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores.The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State is high. The study also revealed that the extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State is high; it has increased high vulnerability of human life, let to the restriction of human movement, displacement of residents, discouraged investment, demolishing of markets, and destruction of farm crops and other agricultural produce. Therefore, it is recommended that kinetic and non-kinetic approaches should be applied in order to quell the menace of banditry in the state. In the same vein, bandits camps should be destroyed anywhere they are found across the major forest in the state. In connection to this, the country‟s land borders should be properly policed in order to prevent arms smuggling in to the country.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A bandit is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang, who uses weapons to steal or rob from the people and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area of a country. Banditry is a term used to refer to acts of robbery and violence in areas where the rule of law has broken down (Collins, 2000). Banditry consists of the organization of armed bands for the purpose of attacking state or social institutions or enterprises or individual persons. Participation in such bands and in the attacks committed by them is equally regarded as bana. bandit is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang, who uses weapons to steal or rob from the people and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area of a country. Banditry is a term used to refer to acts of robbery and violence in areas where the rule of law has broken down (Collins, 2000). Banditry consists of the organization of armed bands for the purpose of attacking state or social institutions or enterprises or individual persons. Participation in such bands and in the attacks committed by them is equally regarded as banditry (Collins, 2000). Historically, banditry has existed and operated in different parts of the world since the 19th century when bandits riding mostly on horse backs move from their hideouts to attack villages and then retreated back to their hideouts. In Europe, bandits have existed in mainly mountainous areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey banditry (Collins, 2000). Historically, banditry has existed and operated in different parts of the world since the 19th century when bandits riding mostly on horse backs move from their hideouts to attack villages and then retreated back to their hideouts. In Europe, bandits have existed in mainly mountainous areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey (Cassia, 1993 cited in collins 2000). The phenomenon of rural banditry, which recently gained ground in Nigeria’s public discourses is a fallout of persistent violence in rural communities within the last ten years. The results had been traumatic. There had been massive loss of thousands of lives, forced displacement of locals and devastation of monumental proportions in States like Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Zamfara, Taraba, Enugu and others across southern Nigeria. Although rural banditry is also reϐlected in criminal escapades like cattle rustling, kidnapping, armed robbery, drug abuse, arson, rape and other forms of violence, the brazen and gruesome massacre of agrarian communities with sophisticated weapons by suspected herdsmen and reprisal attacks from surviving victims threw it up to the front burner of national security. Pastoral Resolve (2016) notes that there is a symbiotic relationship between the two production systems–agricultural and pastoral, but conflicts had arisen because of their reliance on land and its related resources. Thus the declining capacity of the state to moderate these conflicts and undertake effective policing of rural areas led to unending cycle of violence. The attendant resort to self help worsened the security gaps in rural communities. herdsmen and local farmers led to at least 549 deaths and displacement of thousands in 14 states (Ameh &Abdullahi A. 2018). The killings had continued unabated with the mass burial of over 70 native farmers that lost their lives through the attacks of herdsmen in Benue State in January 2018. As such, the phenomenon of rural banditry in Nigeria has transmogrified “from crisis of nomadism to state crisis” (Ibrahim, 2016). It is also described as ‘both a symptom and a cause of rural underdevelopment’(Kyari & Chinyere, 2015).


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

Banditry refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables. the researcher would explain the several causes and effect banditry have on communities The most common which are displacement of indigenes, kidnapping,crippled economy, citizens living in fear, lack of political will and operational challenges.all these have made Nigerians raise a fundamental question about the government’s ability to govern effectively..all this have had adverse effect on the economy and peaceful stability of communities.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major of this study is to critically examine banditry invasion of Nigeria and its effect on community development. By extension, this study will specifically;

  1. Ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State.
  2. Investigate the possible causes of banditry invasion in communities in Zamfara State.
  3. Find out the extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State.
  4. Determine how banditry invasion has affected community development in Zamfara State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What is the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State?
  2. What are the possible causes of banditry invasion in communities in Zamfara State?
  3. What is the extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State?
  4. How banditry invasion has affected community development in Zamfara State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Banditry invasion has no negative effect on community development in Zamfara State.
  • Ha: Banditry invasion has a negative effect on community development in Zamfara State.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study intends to examine banditry invasion and its effect on community development. Hence, Zamfara state in the northwestern part of Nigeria will be used as our case study for this research.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

  • Financial constraint is inevitable considering the present economic situations. Due to lack of finance at the researchers disposal to get materials and in printing of questionnaires. it was not possible to visit some of the communities that have been plagued by bandit activities.
    In developing countries like Nigeria, there is the problem of insufficient data.
  • Time Factor: Time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.9 Definition of Terms

Banditry:

This is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the use of threat or violence.

Invasion:

This is an instance of invading a country or region with an armed force.

Community:

This are a group of people living in the same place.

Development:

This is a process that provides self-organizing complexities.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on banditry invasion of Nigeria and its effect on community development using Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on banditry invasion of Nigeria and its effect on community development using Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State, investigate the possible causes of banditry invasion in communities in Zamfara State, find out the extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State, and determine how banditry invasion has affected community development in Zamfara State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are resident of Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent of banditry activities perpetrated in communities in Zamfara State is high.
  2. The possible causes of banditry invasion in communities in Zamfara State include; state/government Failure, Cattle Rustling, Injustice/Vigilante extortions and complicity of the Traditional Rulers.
  3. The extent banditry invasion has impended rural community development in Zamfara State is high as it has increased high vulnerability of human life, let to the restriction of human movement, displacement of residents, discouraged investment, demolishing of markets, and destruction of farm crops and other agricultural produce.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Kinetic and non-kinetic approaches should be applied in order to quell the menace of banditry in the state. In the same vein, bandits camps should be destroyed anywhere they are found across the major forest in the state. In connection to this, the country‟s land borders should be properly policed in order to prevent arms smuggling in to the country.
  2. The basic social services required of the rural population should be effectively provided by the local governments if their autonomy is restored and corruption checked and controlled. Therefore, local government as the third tier of government need to be strengthen as the most closet government to the rural dwellers.
  3. Government should by all means try to be proactive on security issues in order to prevent same laxity that they were accused of in the flourishing of banditry in the state from getting out of hand; also the fight against corruption should be generally holistic in the state.

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