Banditry Invasion Of Nigeria And Its Effect On Community Development

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Banditry Invasion Of Nigeria And Its Effect On Community Development


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

A bandit is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang, who uses weapons to steal or rob from the people and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area of a country. Banditry is a term used to refer to acts of robbery and violence in areas where the rule of law has broken down (Collins, 2000). Banditry consists of the organization of armed bands for the purpose of attacking state or social institutions or enterprises or individual persons. Participation in such bands and in the attacks committed by them is equally regarded as bana. bandit is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang, who uses weapons to steal or rob from the people and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area of a country. Banditry is a term used to refer to acts of robbery and violence in areas where the rule of law has broken down (Collins, 2000). Banditry consists of the organization of armed bands for the purpose of attacking state or social institutions or enterprises or individual persons. Participation in such bands and in the attacks committed by them is equally regarded as banditry (Collins, 2000). Historically, banditry has existed and operated in different parts of the world since the 19th century when bandits riding mostly on horse backs move from their hideouts to attack villages and then retreated back to their hideouts. In Europe, bandits have existed in mainly mountainous areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey banditry (Collins, 2000). Historically, banditry has existed and operated in different parts of the world since the 19th century when bandits riding mostly on horse backs move from their hideouts to attack villages and then retreated back to their hideouts. In Europe, bandits have existed in mainly mountainous areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey (Cassia, 1993 cited in collins 2000). The phenomenon of rural banditry, which recently gained ground in Nigeria’s public discourses is a fallout of persistent violence in rural communities within the last ten years. The results had been traumatic. There had been massive loss of thousands of lives, forced displacement of locals and devastation of monumental proportions in States like Benue, Kaduna, Plateau, Zamfara, Taraba, Enugu and others across southern Nigeria. Although rural banditry is also reϐlected in criminal escapades like cattle rustling, kidnapping, armed robbery, drug abuse, arson, rape and other forms of violence, the brazen and gruesome massacre of agrarian communities with sophisticated weapons by suspected herdsmen and reprisal attacks from surviving victims threw it up to the front burner of national security. Pastoral Resolve (2016) notes that there is a symbiotic relationship between the two production systems–agricultural and pastoral, but conflicts had arisen because of their reliance on land and its related resources. Thus the declining capacity of the state to moderate these conflicts and undertake effective policing of rural areas led to unending cycle of violence. The attendant resort to self help worsened the security gaps in rural communities. herdsmen and local farmers led to at least 549 deaths and displacement of thousands in 14 states (Ameh &Abdullahi A. 2018). The killings had continued unabated with the mass burial of over 70 native farmers that lost their lives through the attacks of herdsmen in Benue State in January 2018. As such, the phenomenon of rural banditry in Nigeria has transmogrified “from crisis of nomadism to state crisis” (Ibrahim, 2016). It is also described as ‘both a symptom and a cause of rural underdevelopment’(Kyari & Chinyere, 2015).


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

banditry refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables. the researcher would explain the several causes and effect banditry have on communities The most common which are displacement of indigenes, kidnapping, crippled economy, citizens living in fear, lack of political will and operational challenges. All these have made Nigerians raise a fundamental question about the government’s ability to govern effectively.. All this have had adverse effect on the economy and peaceful stability of communities.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The primary objective of this study is to:

  1. To find out the causes and effect banditry have on communities
  2. To find out the level to which banditry have affected the developments of communities
  3. To recommend ways in which the government can eradicated or reduce the activities of bandits

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for this research which are:

  1. What is the effect banditry have on communities?
  2. What is the level of damage banditry have on the development of communities?
  3. How has government authority assisted in combating the issue of banditry?
  4. What is the recommendation to reduce the activities of bandits?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will lay emphasis on banditry invasion and its effect on community development
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, community leaders, NGOS, and academia

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study intends to examine banditry invasion and its effect on community development. Hence , Zamfara state in the northwestern part of Nigeria will be used as our case study for this research.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Financial constraint is inevitable considering the present economic situations. Due to lack of finance at the researchers disposal to get materials and in printing of questionnaires. it was not possible to visit some of the communities that have been plagued by bandit activities.

In developing countries like Nigeria, there is the problem of insufficient data.

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Banditry:

This is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the use of threat or violence.

Invasion:

This is an instance of invading a country or region with an armed force.

Community:

This are a group of people living in the same place.

Development:

This is a process that provides self-organizing complexities.


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