A Critical Analysis Of The Effect Of Banditry On Rural Community Development In Nigeria

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A Critical Analysis Of The Effect Of Banditry On Rural Community Development In Nigeria


The study is focused on a critical investigation of banditry on rural community development using funtua local Government in Kastina State as a case study. Survey research design and convenience sampling method was employed for the study. Fifty (50) educated respondent who are residents of Funtua Local government in Kastina State were purposively selected which forms the population for the study. Using questionnaire as an instrument, forty-seven (47) were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequencies and tables which provided answers to the research question. Findings from the study reveals that Banditry is one of the major forms of insecurity that has affected the northwest geopolitical zone for the past decade. Banditry has affected all facets of human life among which is underdevelopment of rural community. These negative impacts include killing and kidnapping of farmers, chasing of farmers out of their farmlands, seizing of farmlands, theft of cattle, burning and raiding of grain silos, and blocking of local trade routes which keeps rural dwellers in economic impoverishment and lack of development since those areas are not even secured. The study therefore recommends that, the government should with immediate urgency enhance the security network of those areas, such that security operatives are empowered with enough weapon to confront bandits. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen the traditional security system and its conflict resolution component to fill the gap of the declining capacity of State formal security agencies to meet the security needs / challenges of rural areas.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria has been a battlefield for some time now. In addition to the perennial war between farms and herdmen, the Biafra rebels, radical Islamists in the North-East, kidnaps in several regions of the country, the Niger Delta imbroglio and so on face other prominent security problems. There are notable challenges. However, Nigeria’s greatest security challenge remains probably the Boko Haram Party. The group poses a major threat, with serious economic, social and humanitarian implications, to neighbors, especially Cameroon, Niger and Chad.For instance, in Jere Local Government, Borno State, Nigeria, the group executed 40 rice farmers with horror recently. The UN estimated that the death toll was much more than recorded. But as the group makes life miserable to the people of the Northood, another organized group called the armed bandits are making the lives of the people living in the northwest of Nigeria more difficult. In this part of the world, life is no longer sacred, and the overall effect is sure to continue for decades. Clearly, government is frustrated and people are powerless. Therefore, it is expedient to explore the complexities of this latest increase in army banditry, the difficulty of fighting banditry and how bandits and insurgents can keep the nation from being totally shut down. But those thieves, first of all?

Abuse against banditry in Nigeria is not a recent practice. Banditry tradition in Nigeria dates back to the pre-civil war era when the government deteriorated to political violence, crime and organized rebellion in some parts of the ancient Western Region. Thus, local bandits allegedly robbed domestic animals during the civilian reign. Bandits have recently been especially worrying in the Northwest region of Nigeria and particularly in the countries of Zamfara, Sokoto, Katsina, Niger, Kaduna and Kebbi. The activities of these bandits’ ranges from kidnapping to murder, robbery, rape, cattle-rustling, and the likes. Their modus operandi involves maiming and killing their victims when they least expect. Usually, they mobilized themselves through the forests into the neighborhood riding on fast motorcycles especially in the nights and shoot at will. Sometimes in the afternoon, once they were sure there were no security presence of the police or military around, they unleash terror in the communities. This growing threat is claiming victims in hundreds. Several children have been orphaned and women became widows overnight while the issue of food security as well as humanitarian tragedy will further make life unbearable for many Nigerians. The truth is frightening. In 2018, about “1,100 people were killed in six north-western Nigerian nations, more than 2,200 killed in 2019 and 1,600 killed between January and June 2020.” Around 247,000 people were displaced, with more than 41,000 refugees being created by their operation. In Zamfara alone, over 8000 people have been murdered in the last decade, 200,000 displaced internally and others fleeing to neighbouring states. This condition is now so porous that Muhammadu Sa ad Abubakar, Sokoto’s religious leader and Sultan, said: “Now, bandits travel with AK47 in the north and regret the region’s worst. It is important to note that the newest Northwest conflict started because of fight over depleting lands and water resources between the farmers and the herdsmen with the farmers belonging mostly to the Hausa people and the herdsmen being predominantly Fulani. Also, in an area where poverty is deeply rooted and illiteracy extremely high, rearing cattle is the preoccupation of many Fulani’. Thus, whenever this source of livelihood is threatened, whether by nature or human intervention, they are willing to do anything to survive. In addition, there is the problem of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in the area, inequality and as John Campbell puts it, “weakened, stretched and demoralized security services

1.2 Statement of Problem

Banditry and further instability factors in northern Nigeria have degenerated into a dynamic, territorial emergency. The Boko Haram rebellion shows just what happened. Boko Haram started coordinated assaults on people, populations and ultimately the state after isolated events In contexts with no dissuasion, crime thrives. There are numerous openings for illegal activities in most rural areas in Nigeria. First of all, some of the groups are situated in rural areas where government presence is little or not good. In certain cases, families are isolated by woodland areas and interspersed with them. This makes them susceptible to banditry assaults on people, populations and ultimately the state after isolated events. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges. In effect, the incidence and prevalence of rural banditry in northwest Nigeria raises a fundamental question about the government’s ability to govern effectively. The state security machinery has so far failed to tackle the scourge of banditry. This failure stems from a lack of political will and operational challenges.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of this study is

  1. To analyse the effect of banditry on rural community development
  2. To investigate the causes of this banditry on rural communities
  3. To examine if this attack have affected the living standard in this communities

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the effect of banditry attack on rural community development?
  2. What are the causes of recent banditry on rural communities?
  3. Is the quality of living in these communities affected by the attack?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of significance to the government to bring to their knowledge a way of curbing the attacks of banditry .the study will also serve as a reference material to scholars, students and researchers who may want to carry out further research on this study

1.6 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this research is to critically analyse the effects of banditry on rural community development in Nigeria

1.7 Limitation of the Study

During the course of thus research , the major challenge encountered were time constraint, finance and unavailability of research materials

1.8 Definition of Terms


This is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws, typically involving threat or use of violence

Rural Community:

A rural community or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on a critical analysis on the effect of banditry on rural community development using Kastina State as case study.

5.2 Summary

The main purpose of the study was to analyze a critical effect of banditry on rural community development. it discussed the concept of banditry and rural development. It examine the causes of banditry analyse the effect of banditry on rural community development and the series of attacks on rural communities. It revealed how this attacks have affected the living standard in this communities. Survey research design and convenience sampling method was employed for the study. Fifty (50) educated respondent who are residents of Funtua Local government in Kastina State were purporsively selected which forms the population for the study. Using questionnaire as an instrument, forty-seven (47) were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequencies and tables which provided answers to the research question.

5.2 Conclusion

In Nigeria, various forms of insecurity such as insurgency and banditry have negative impacts on food security in the country One of the most recent was the fatal attacks by bandits on farmers working on rice fields in Zabarmari in Jere LGA of Borno state on 28th November, 2020.This attack portends danger to food security as many farmers are very scared to go to their farms to engage in irrigation farming among other food producing activities.

Banditry, particularly in the North West has also negatively impacted rural community development in states such as Katsina. The implications of the impacts means that there is reduction in the number of farmers due to their killings, there is impoverishment of farmers due to kidnappings, farmers are not willing to go to their farmlands as they will be chased out, cattle rearing has become difficult, there is reduction in the quantity of crops stored in grain silos, there are risks of attacks when farmers visit local weekly markets and many farmers have become dependent on food provided either at IDP camps or at the houses of friends and relatives thus rural community development. These clearly indicate the negative impacts of banditry on rural development in Katsina state.

5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made in order to end banditry towards improving food security in Katsina state.

  1. NSCDC should deploy enough agro-rangers corps to Katsina state with a view to provide security for farmers as they presently harvest crops and to ensure that the irrigation farming season commences smoothly.
  2. Troops of Operation Sahel Sanity stationed in Faskari; Faskari LGA should strive to device new strategies in confronting the bandits and ending banditry in Katsina state. This is important considering the fact that the bandits still carry out attacks in the LGA despite the presence of the troops.
  3. Local government councils should contact their members of House of Representatives with a view to assist the vigilante groups with operational materials and logistics to enable them confront the bandits.
  4. Farmers should be enlightened on the need to desist from planting crops such as maize, millet and sorghum which will provide cover to bandits to enable them come close to village settlements undetected to rest during the day time and attack in the evening or night time. Direct Res. J. Agric. Food Sci. 446
  5. The Federal, State and Local Governments including the communities should come together to hold a conference with a view to mapping out strategies to end banditry in Katsina state. This would enable IDPs to return to their homes and farmlands to end the dependence on food handout from the government.
  6. The State Government should work out a compensation plan to assist cattle owners whose cattle were rustled by the bandits and such people have no means of livelihood at present. The compensation scheme should be in cash or some number of cows, sheep or goats can be given to them to start cattle rearing to mitigate their sufferings and lessen the traumatic experiences.

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