The Effect Of Banditry On Security Of Academic Staffs Of Universities In Nigeria (Case Study Of UNIABUJA)
This study was carried out on the effect of banditry on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria using University of Abuja The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of academic staffs of University of Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of banditry in Nigeria includes: unemployment and poverty, lack ofeducation, poor socio-amenities, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, Insecurity.The study also revealed that the extent at which banditry activities obstruct security of tertiary institution is high. The study further revealed that the extent of banditry attacks on the academic staff of universities is high. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should identify problems causing insecurity, banditry and insurgency in the country and tackle them. Management of the university should provide adequate security in all staff quarters and install CCTVs at strategic locations. All tertiary staff quarters should be equipped with perimeter fences. Security is everybody’s business, hence there is need for security awareness by both staff and students in order to stay safe. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organizations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The objectives of Nigerian higher institutions is to provide post-secondary school education with the aims of producing relevant manpower that will aid the social and foster the economic and technological advancement and development of the country. This objective is feasible only if the teaching and learning takes place effectively in a peaceful environment. Recent developments in Nigeria where educational institutions, including higher institutions are always closed down because of insecurity challenges caused by internal and external actors is alarming. The worse of all is that academic staff and non-academic staff and students are been attacked, even killed by criminal elements such as bandits and terrorists.
Banditry can be referred to the instances of armed robbery or linked violent crimes, such as abduction, livestock rustling, and hamlet or market invasions. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to frighten a person or a group of individuals in order to rob, rape or kill (Okoli and Okpaleke 2014). Economic or political motives inspire banditry. (Babalola, 2009) expressed that banditry denotes incidence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crime. It entails the use of force, or threat to that effect, to frighten a person with the aim to rob rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against humans. It has been a prevalent genre of crime, as well as causing violence in contemporary society.
The incidence of banditry in Nigeria seems to have been high and rising throughout the years. According to (Babalola, 2009), ‘‘crime against persons, including murder, rape, and robbery has escalated in magnitude and viciousness in Nigeria since 1999”. This has been proved by the pervasive tendency of armed robbery in the nation, which in effect parallels the Africa-wide experience. Car snatching, house and office robbery, and way-laying of travelers are all typical kinds of armed robbery in African countries. Since the beginning of the African crises in the 1980s, their prevalence has been increasing.
According to (Kpela, 2005), the cases of kidnapping has been on the steady rise in Nigeria with the kidnap of the chibok girls setting the trend. The terrifying kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls in Chibok in 2014 by the Islamist extremist organization Boko Haram stunned the globe. The sheer number of children abducted, as well as the ease with which Boko Haram carried out its raid, was shocking and provoked international anger. However, a recent spate of mass school abductions makes the Chibok girls’ ordeal less of an exception. More than 800 pupils have been abducted in mass abductions at four boarding schools in northwest Nigeria, far from Boko Haram’s heartland in the northeast, in the last three months. School kidnappings and other types of banditry has been a point of concern and a threat to the academic world especially the academic staff of Universities (Kpela, 2005).
According to Ozurumba & Amasuomo (2015), academic staff refers to a group of persons who work at an institute and conduct administrative responsibilities. Accountants, assistants, counsellors, a secretary, an office boy, a security team, a clerk, a registrar, and a dean are among the staff members. It also includes those who assist with maintenance and other tasks within the institute.
Staff members at educational institutions often have a variety of educational backgrounds and duties. The administration has the greatest level of accountability. These individuals are in charge of the entire establishment’s management. To assist these individuals, a number of persons are hired as junior staff who follow directions from higher-ups in order to make the institute’s operations more efficient and manageable. The working hours of staff personnel are more consistent than those of faculty members. Staff personnel are usually the first to arrive at the institute.
The significance of education has been sufficiently debated in several forums and diverse publications (Nwanne- Nzewunwa, 2009; Ojukwu and Nwanma, 2015 and Ojukwu and Onuoha, 2016; Ossat, 2012). In recognition of the importance of child education, the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria declared in its 1999 constitution the right of every Nigerian child to education, regardless of gender, tribe, religion, or race. It stands to reason that the high ideal of education enshrined in the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s constitution would be achieved in a tranquil and conducive educational atmosphere. The lofty purposes of education, according to Lehr (2004), can never be realized in a vacuum. They would be accomplished in a welcoming and tranquil educational atmosphere. If there is a sense of insecurity both inside and outside the school, both students and instructors are likely to be discouraged, which may impair kids’ academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In today’s Nigerian education, insecurity is a major cause of worry. Insecurity at tertiary institutions especially the university is a societal issue that cannot be overstated and overlooked due to the far-reaching implications and dire effects for education, the economy, and society in general. It is a problem that Nigerians must address seriously. Efforts should be made to build a strong, just, democratic, and equal society. Although the problem of insecurity has piqued the public’s curiosity throughout the years, it appears that interest in resolving the insecurity equation is decreasing, and even when the subject is addressed, little focus appears to be placed on the gruesome socioeconomic, political, and spiritual ramifications as expressed by (Nkpodia 2001)
According to (Babalola 2009), insecurity is a serious concern affecting mankind today. Insecurity challenges are so ubiquitous that they dominate the news in every mass communication medium throughout the world. Obi (2015); Abubakar (2016), Ogunode & Musa, (2020), Ogunode, Ahmed, Jegede & Abubakar (2020) and Ahaotu & Ogunode, 2021) all reported that tertiary institutions are faced with insecurity problems leading to the death of lecturers specifically. The implementation of teaching, research programmes and community services depend on a peaceful and secured environment. Lecturers and students can only teach and learn under an environment that is conducive and devoid of fear. The threat of insecurity in the Nigerian tertiary institutions is inimical to the development of higher education. Of recent, according to (Idoko 2021) as cited in tribuneonlineng.org, suspected gunmen broke into the staff quarters of the University of Abuja (UNIABUJA) and kidnapped a professor of Economics, Obansa Joseph, two of his children, and other university workers whose names have yet to be established. Cases like this and the incessant harassment of academic staff of universities by bandits has been a difficult bone to chew by the academic world and Nigeria as a whole. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the effects of Banditry on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main of this study is to examine the effects of banditry on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria. Other objectives of this study are:
- To identify the causes of banditry in Nigeria
- To determine the extent at which banditry activities obstruct security of tertiary institution
- To examine the level of banditry attacks on the academic staff of universities
- To examine the impacts of banditry on the academic staff of universities
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the causes of banditry in Nigeria?
- What is the extent at which banditry activities obstruct security of tertiary institution?
- What is the level of banditry attacks on the academic staff of universities?
- What is the impacts of banditry on the academic staff of universities?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H0: Banditry has no significant effect on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria.
H1: Banditry has A significant effect on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense help to the staff of Universities as they will be able to know the effects of banditry on the university, will also be of importance to the students as they will see the results of banditry on the society and be deterred from it. This research will also help concerned institutions to effect changes where necessary and to put laws in place that will help curtail banditry and its components and possibly, eradicate it from the society.
Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on identifying the effects of Banditry on Security of Academic Staffs of Universities in Nigeria. It will also find out the effects of banditry on the security of students in tertiary institutions.
This research will further look the impacts of banditry on academic staff. University of Abuja staff shall serve as enrolled participants of this study.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This study was done and carried out only in the University of Abuja and as such the results of this research cannot be used in any other University in Nigeria and the world as a whole as the effects of banditry on Security of Academic Staffs of Universities differ due to geographical position, cultural belief and social tendencies.
This study is not proffering solutions on the rise of banditry and this serves as a limitation of this studyThis study will only be focusing on academic staff only and no other class of people.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.
The state of being free from danger or threat
Staff who are engaged to undertake teaching research and scholarship
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of banditry on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria using University of Abuja as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of banditry on security of academic staffs of universities in Nigeria using University of Abuja. The study is was specifically carried out to identify the causes of banditry in Nigeria, determine the extent at which banditry activities obstruct security of tertiary institution, examine the level of banditry attacks on the academic staff of universities, and examine the impacts of banditry on the academic staff of universities.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were academic staffs of University of Abuja
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The causes of banditry in Nigeria includes: Unemployment and poverty, lack ofeducation, poor socio-amenities, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, Insecurity.
- The extent at which banditry activities obstruct security of tertiary institution is high.
- The extent of banditry attacks on the academic staff of universities is high.
- The impacts of banditry on the academic staff of universities is negative.
In order to address these problems identified in this study, the following recommendations were made:
- The government should identify problems causing insecurity, banditry and insurgency in the country and tackle them.
- Management of the university should provide adequate security in all staff quarters and install CCTVs at strategic locations. All tertiary staff quarters should be equipped with perimeter fences.
- Adequate funds should be provided for the security unit of tertiary institutions and the units should be equipped with modern security technologies.
- Security units in the university should be well-staffed with qualified personnel.
- Recruitment of security personnel should be tailored towards getting those with experience and passion. The security department should not be an all-comers affair.
- Regular training and retraining programmes should be organized for all security personnel to sharpen their skills and acquaint them with modern trends in intelligent gathering, crime detention and security operation.
- Security is everybody’s business, hence there is need for security awareness by both staff and students in order to stay safe.
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