Effects Of Banditry On The Socio-Economic Activities Of Zamfara State

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Effects Of Banditry On The Socio-Economic Activities Of Zamfara State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effects of banditry on the socio-economic activities in Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State. The study specifically set to ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State, investigate the possible causes of banditry activities in Zamfara State, find out the extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State, and determine how banditry has affect socioeconomic activities in Zamfara State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident of Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores.The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State is high. The study also revealed that the extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State is high. It has increased high vulnerability of human life, let to the restriction of human movement, displacement of residents, discouraged investment, demolishing of markets, and destruction of farm crops and other agricultural produce. Therefore, it is recommended that kinetic and non-kinetic approaches should be applied in order to quell the menace of banditry in the state. In the same vein, bandits camps should be destroyed anywhere they are found across the major forest in the state. In connection to this, the country‟s land borders should be properly policed in order to prevent arms smuggling in to the country.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Armed banditry has been a pandemic global human phenomenon; which has a severe social, political and economic consequence that tends to be threatening the overall developmental efforts of the affected nations. In Zamfara State, currently, banditry has been a social problem which has, still continued to be haunting the many communities in the state un-abated. The vicious circle of kidnapping, cattle rustling, wishful and arbitral killing of people by the bandits has been reoccurring on the terrain of the state from 2011 to date. It is now an open fact that, the activities of these bandits have to some extent paralyses the day to day activities of the affected communities. The frequent and prevalence of armed banditry has led to high rate of death, injury and displacement of humans in some part of the country with Zamfara State topping the list. In Zamfara State most of the people who were affected by the bandit‟s activities are forced to move or migrate to other places for safety. Hence, the sudden and unorganized movements of the victims affect their wellbeing both politically, psychologically, socially and economically.

It has now been, due to armed banditry, a difficult and hard time for the entire people of Zamfara State. The current situation of things in the state could easily be likened to the scenario of the war torn countries where people were found living in fear of the uncertainty. This is due to the fact that most of the people living in some of the villages in the state can hardly sleep with all their eyes closed. In effect, because of the constant spontaneous as well as some times erratic nature of the attacks by the bandits, the villagers had resorted to abandoning their homes in the night to look for shelter in nearby bushes; and return in the morning with their families.

Moreover, because of these heinous activities of the bandits in the state, most of the villager‟s political, social, economic as well as their religious activities has now been at the lowest ebb; as farming and pastoral activities had result to the level of none-existence in most of the communities and villages in the state.

This disturbing development has made Zamfara State and its environment unsecured which therefore calls for and prompted both the federal and Zamfara state governments in dire situations of measures to end the menace or at least to bring it to the barest minimum. It is pertinent to stress here that Zamfara state is currently grappling with issues of socio-economic development; as an agrarian state, which is currently engulfed in conflict that was centered on forcefully denying the communities from their ancient occupation (farming), since the crops produced were burnt down, and the process of further cultivation or production were hindered by the bandits.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The flow of illicit firearms in communities of North-West region is also a cause for security concern. Apart from fatalities recorded, bandits’ attacks on communities increased social risks, discouraged investment and triggered economic crisis for individuals and communities. The conflict is causing a spill over effect on other neighbouring communities and local government areas of Zamfara State in the North-Central region, hindering inter-communal and inter-state trade.

The insecurity has a significant impact on other economic activities in the region, as a number of major local markets such as IIella, Dandume, Maidabino, Kankara (Katsina State) and Bardoki, Shinkafi (Zamfara State) which have been shut down due to incessant attacks⁴⁹. The strategic nature of the trading locations made them attractive to major merchants from across other regions of the country for foodstuff including maize, millet, guinea corn and beans. However, the proximity of these markets to the forest reserves made them vulnerable to attacks. This had an adverse effect on trading activities, as revenue generation and market sales/supplies in the markets declined.

According to the 2019 report on food insecurity and market by Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), Shinkafi market, a major cross border town in Zamfara State, functioned between 30 to 40 percent within the reviewed period, while Dandume market in Katsina State functioned lower by 15 to 25 percent relative to normal trading projections⁵¹ as shown in the map below. With the ongoing peace initiatives and negotiated peace deals with bandits, economic and farming activities have gradually resumed with communities and markets relatively secured for displaced returnees.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major of this study is to critically examine the effects of banditry on the socio-economic activities of Zamfara State. By extension, this study will specifically;

  1. Ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State.
  2. Investigate the possible causes of banditry activities in Zamfara State.
  3. Find out the extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State.
  4. Determine how banditry has affect socioeconomic activities in Zamfara State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What is the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State?
  2. What are the possible causes of banditry activities in Zamfara State?
  3. What is the extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State?
  4. How banditry has affected socioeconomic activities in Zamfara State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Banditry has no negative effect on socio-economic activities of Zamfara State.
  • Ha: Banditry has a negative effect on socio-economic activities of Zamfara State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will equally add to the existing body of knowledge on the subject matter. Students undergoing research work similar to the present study who may wish to use this work as a reference material or a spring board for their own work will find this work really useful.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is to critically examine the effects of banditry on the socio-economic activities of Zamfara State. Geographically, this study will be delimited to Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State.


1.8. Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Socio-Economic Development:

Socio-economic development is the process of social and economic development in a society. Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy and levels of employment.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of banditry on the socio-economic activities in Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effects of banditry on the socio-economic activities in Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State, investigate the possible causes of banditry activities in Zamfara State, find out the extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State, and determine how banditry has affect socioeconomic activities in Zamfara State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are resident of Bakura Local Government area of Zamfara State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent of banditry activities perpetrated in Zamfara State is high.
  2. The possible causes of banditry activities in Zamfara State include; state/government Failure, Cattle Rustling, Injustice/Vigilante extortions and complicity of the Traditional Rulers.
  3. The extent banditry has impended economic activities in Zamfara State is high. It has increased high vulnerability of human life, let to the restriction of human movement, displacement of residents, discouraged investment, demolishing of markets, and destruction of farm crops and other agricultural produce.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Kinetic and non-kinetic approaches should be applied in order to quell the menace of banditry in the state. In the same vein, bandits camps should be destroyed anywhere they are found across the major forest in the state. In connection to this, the country‟s land borders should be properly policed in order to prevent arms smuggling in to the country.
  2. The basic social services required of the rural population should be effectively provided by the local governments if their autonomy is restored and corruption checked and controlled. Therefore, local government as the third tier of government need to be strengthen as the most closet government to the rural dwellers.
  3. Government should by all means try to be proactive on security issues in order to prevent same laxity that they were accused of in the flourishing of banditry in the state from getting out of hand; also the fight against corruption should be generally holistic in the state.

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