An Examination Of Effect Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria

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An Examination Of Effect Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria


Abstract


The main focus of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration using Kaduna State as case study. Survey research design was employed, Using convenience sampling method the research conveniently selected 256 participants who are residents of Kaduna State. Questionnaire was issued and 225 copies were returned and validated for the study. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool(SPSS).

Findings from the study revealed that, banditry has a significant effect on rural-urban migration. More so the rate of migration cause by banditry activities in Kaduna is high. The study therefore recommends that Government should come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on rural dwellers and improve their livelihood. Policy makers should make policies that would cover rural-urban migration and ensure that security of lives is made priority.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Area of Study
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the study
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Migration is regarded as the movement of person(s) from one ecological region to another region, which might be on temporary or permanent origin [Adewale 2005]. A group of persons migrate based on the existing conditions and the motives for it differs from one person to another depending on the circumstances that brought about the decision to migrate. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families/households with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. The movement of people from rural to urban areas is a common episode in Northwest Nigeria masterminded by the insecurity issues prevalent in this areas.

The movement sometimes poses some calamities in the rural as well as in the urban areas even though; there are benefits derivable from it. In most rural areas, the impact of rural-urban migration was a rapid deterioration of the rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity [Mini S.E 2003].These arise mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural population hence leaving only the older, women and aged members to constitute the labour force of the rural area. Migration to urban areas is placing increasing pressure on local government’s ability to respond to social service needs of urban populations.

Banditry means occurrence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crimes. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to intimidate a person with the intent to rob, rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against persons. It has been a common genre of crime, as well as cause violence in contemporary societies (Nigeria Watch, 2011). The prevalence of banditry in Nigeria appears to have been high and rising over the years.Nigeria’s Northwest is gradually becoming another major regional theatre of violence, much like the Northeast where Boko Haram terrorists have wreaked havoc in the past ten years. A problem, which initially appeared as localized disputes between herders and farmers over access to land, has morphed into an intractable crisis posing a major threat to national and regional security. The level of rural banditry keeps escalating from 2014 till date attracting a lot of attention, while assuming increased political undertones are master minders to this yet its of great implication to the survival of common man and at large hence the reason why most rural settlers leave their home and migrate to urban areas in the bid secure their their lives. Banditry refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables or most cases average people displaced from their home and are forced to migrate.

Banditry in the northwestern states of Kaduna, Zamfara and Katsina has reached alarming heights in recent years. Bandits terrorize villages with impunity. They have actually settled in the states like Ogun in form of herdsmen, Kaduna and Kastina State respectively, setting up fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the frontiers, from where they plot and carry out their operations on rural community settlers.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Crime thrives in contexts where there’s little deterrence. In most of Nigeria’s rural communities, there are many opportunities for criminal activity. For one thing, some of these communities are located in remote areas where there is little or no government presence. More importantly, households and schools are in some cases separated by and interspersed with forest areas. This renders them vulnerable to banditry. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges. The on going banditry activities prevalent in northwest region of Nigeria has pushed rural dwellers out of their homes into searching for succor in the urban area. The implication of this could be tremendous both to rural community and urban. In addition to displacement, the violence has hampered agricultural activities and heightened the risk of acute food insecurity. Livelihoods have been disrupted, fear and insecurity among the population have increased, and IDPs and host communities are competing for scarce resources such as water, land and food. Protection concerns are heightened for women, children and the elderly, while security, food and other necessities for survival are priority needs in affected areas. However it is against this backdrop that this study is seek to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically it is geared:

  1. To examine the conditions that can lead to rural-urban migration
  2. To investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities
  3. To determine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It would further enable policy makers on the need to make policies that would cover rural-urban migration and ensure that security of lives is made priority. It will enlighten community settlers on the need to be security conscious and prepare themselves with other self-defence mechanism in the absence of quick response from government enforcement agencies. Finally the study will also contribute to the general body of knowledge.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically it will examine the conditions that can lead to rural-urban migration. It will also investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities. More.so it will determine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry activities. The study is delimited to Kaduna State.


1.6. Research Hypothesis

  • H0: There is no significant effect between rural-urban migration and banditry
  • H0: The rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry is low

1.7 Limitation of Study

In the course of this study the researcher encountered few challenges which majorly includes:
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Operational Definitions

Implication:

this the effect an action has on something or the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Rural:

A Rural area or Countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. This include village and aggro-communities

Urban:

Urban refers to a developed geographical area such as town or cities.

Migration:

Migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The main focus of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration using Kaduna State as case study. Survey research design was employed, Using convenience sampling method the research conveniently selected 256 participants who are residents of Kaduna State. Questionnaire was issued and 225 copies were returned and validated for the study. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool(SPSS).

Findings from the study revealed that, banditry has a significant effect on rural-urban migration. More so the rate of migration cause by banditry activities in Kaduna is high.


5.2 Conclusion

Forced Rural Migration masterminded by banditry causes economic, social and cultural improvements for some people but also deterioration in the overall urban environment and a very low standard of living for the very large number of migrants who constitute the poor. Although while those fleeing from crisis area to save their lives, this have impact on both rural and urban economy. The urban benefits fail to touch the majority of the poor migrants. Soon after arriving to the city the incoming population put themselves in helpless condition. As rural people are poorer than urban people, many of them cannot afford the living expense of city’s residential areas. Overcrowding of people has created severe pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructures and its absorbing capacities. Necessarily, environmental, social, economic and political problems of major significance are being created. Thus is now a chronic shortage of housing, congestion in public transport, acute crisis in supply of water, gas and electricity. Increasing pressure of population upon the civic amenities has resulted in air, water, noise pollution and an increase in urban crimes. The city is characterized by high level of poverty and social vulnerability, shortage of housing, infrastructure and social services, poor quality of physical and social environment and inefficient urban management. Not only is the urban region affected, the rural community suffer shortage of man power in terms of agriculture business and thus they remain impoverished.


5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendation were made

  1. Troops of other equipped security agencies and vigilant groups should be stationed in farming area of each Local Government Area and they should be equipped to strive toward devising new strategies in confronting the bandits and ending banditry in Kaduna state. This is important considering the fact that the bandits still carry out attacks in the LGA despite the presence of the military troops.
  2. Local government councils should contact their members of House of Representatives with a view to assist the vigilante groups with operational materials and logistics to enable them confront the bandits.
  3. Farmers should be enlightened on the need to desist from planting crops such as maize, millet and sorghum which will provide cover to bandits to enable them come close to village settlements undetected to rest during the day time and attack in the evening or night time.
  4. The Federal, State and Local Governments including the communities should come together to hold a conference with a view to mapping out strategies to end banditry in Kaduna state. This would enable IDPs to return to their homes and farmlands to curb rural-urban migration.
  5. The State Government should work out a compensation plan to assist cattle owners whose cattle were rustled by the bandits and such people have no means of livelihood at present. The compensation scheme should be in cash or some number of cows, sheep or goats can be given to them to start cattle rearing to mitigate their sufferings and lessen the traumatic experiences.
  6. Functional social amenities such as electricity, pipe borne water should be provided in the rural areas. Good schools and qualified teachers should be made available in the rural areas. Agro-allied industries must be set-up in the rural areas to reduce rural-urban migration in order to provide job opportunities for the people of the rural area. The agricultural inputs and farming technologies should be introduced to the rural people to improve the production level. The good road should be constructed for the rural area and credit facilities should be provided for the rural people to improve their production level, which will lead to improvement in their standard of living.
  7. Government should come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on rural dwellers and improve their livelihood.
  8. Policy makers should make policies that would cover rural-urban migration and ensure that security of lives is made priority.
  9. Rural community settlers should be security conscious and prepare themselves with other self-defence mechanism in the absence of quick response from government enforcement agencies

An Examination Of Effect Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria


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