The Implication Of Banditry And Abduction On National Development In Nigeria

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The Implication Of Banditry And Abduction On National Development In Nigeria


Abstract


This aim of this study focused on the implication of banditry and abduction on national development using Kastina Metropolis in Kastina State as case study. The survey research design and convenient sampling method was used in this research to enroll participant who are all residents of Kastina Metropolis. The researcher made use of structured questionnaire as the research instrument to collect relevant data from 120 respondents on the subject matter of the research out of which a total of 105 questionnaires was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequency and table. Findings from the studies revealed the underlying causes of banditry such as unemployment, poverty, poor leadership, citizen’s alienation from governance, elite proliferation of arms, religious and ethnic differences and weak institution of the law enforcement agencies to mention but a few. Hence these banditry activities has affected the national development but economically and social wise. It has displaced economic activities, distort workplace harmony, impedes individuals economic investment as ransom paying for release of victims of kidnap often affects both the state and household economy and also led to high government expenditure on security matters. The study therefore recommends that public awareness programs should be created in Kastina State, government should map out synergic approach between the security forces and community police should be established, appropriate sanctions for those caught in the criminal act, phone sim-card registration, more job creation and alleviation of the poverty level in the.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Civil unrest, terror threats, banditry and ongoing abductions of Nigerians, including the well-publicized kidnapping of school boys and girls by bandit and terrorist group, underscores the continuing challenges of security and national development in Nigeria.

One of the most fundamental challenges facing contemporary states is how to ensure national development in the face of manifold and ever burgeoning security threats. Prominent among these threats is the issue of organized crime (Okoli & Orinya, 2013). Organized crimes are high profile crimes which are often perpetrated through transnational syndication and racketeering. Cases in point include terrorism, banditry, money laundry, abduction and kidnapping. Globally, indications are rife to the effect that organized crimes are not only getting prevalent; indeed they are also getting sophisticated and consolidated and politicized. In this effect, they are becoming rather entrenched both locally and globally.

Banditry means occurrence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crimes. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to intimidate a person with the intent to rob, rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against persons. It has been a common genre of crime, as well as cause violence in contemporary societies (Nigeria Watch, 2011). The prevalence of banditry in Nigeria appears to have been high and rising over the years.Nigeria’s Northwest is gradually becoming another major regional theatre of violence, much like the Northeast where Boko Haram terrorists have wreaked havoc in the past ten years. A problem, which initially appeared as localized disputes between herders and farmers over access to land, has morphed into an intractable crisis posing a major threat to national and regional security. The level of rural banditry keeps escalating from 2014 till date attracting a lot of attention, while assuming increased political undertones are master minders to this yet its of great implication to the survival of common man and at large impedes national development. Banditry refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables or most cases average people displaced from their home.

Banditry in the northwestern states of Kaduna, Zamfara and Katsina has reached alarming heights in recent years. Bandits terrorize villages with impunity. They have actually settled in the Kastina State, setting up fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the frontiers, from where they plot and carry out their operations.The most common examples of rural banditry in Nigeria are armed robbery, abduction of school children, cattle rustling and village raids.

Abduction which is synonymous to kidnapping is usually accompanied with a ransom for money or other gains. Thus a crime of abduction is considered to be when a person has been taken away from his or her original location by persuading him or her, by some act of fraud or with a forceful way that may include violence. However s political actors and stakeholders of the society and politicizing these life threatening issues thus no matter how government pretends about this, banditry and abduction has a major implication on the national security and development.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Crime thrives in contexts where there’s little deterrence. In most of Nigeria’s rural communities, there are many opportunities for criminal activity. For one thing, some of these communities are located in remote areas where there is little or no government presence. More importantly, households and schools are in some cases separated by and interspersed with forest areas. This renders them vulnerable to banditry. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges.

In effect, the incidence and prevalence of rural banditry and abduction of school children in northwest Nigeria raises a fundamental question about the government’s ability to govern effectively. The state security machinery has so far failed to tackle the scourge of banditry and kidnapping. This failure stems from a lack of political will and operational challenges. Essentially, the prevailing socio-existential conditions in northwestern Nigeria have complicated the security and national development. However it against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the implication of banditry and abduction on national development.


1.3 Objective of the Study

This is set to examine the implication of banditry and abduction on national development. Specifically it is set

  1. To examine the causes of banditry and abduction in Northwest Nigeria
  2. To determine the implications of banditry on national development
  3. To determine the extent at which banditry and abduction affects national security and development

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will enable Public security agents in Nigeria on the need to be exposed (by way of periodic training) to the globally tenable best practices and know-how of counter-banditry to boost their operational efficiency in combating violent crimes in general and armed robbery in particular.it will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It will hamper the criminal justice system of Nigeria on the need to be re-positioned and revitalized through progressive reforms to enable it acquire the integrity and competences to sanction crime aright.


1.5 Research Question

  1. 1. What are the underlying causes of banditry and abduction in Kastina State?
  2. 2. what are the implications of banditry and abduction on national development?
  3. 3. To what extent does banditry and abduction affect national security and development?

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is set to examine the implication of banditry and abduction on national development using Kastina State Nigeria as a case study.


1.7 Limitation of Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Operational Definitions

Implication:

This the effect an action has on something or the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Abduction:

The action of forcibly taking someone away against their will. It is always synonymous to kidnapping which is criminal offense consisting of the unlawful taking and carrying away of a person by force or fraud or the unlawful seizure and detention of a person against his will.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This aim of this study focused on the implication of banditry and abduction on national development using Kastina Metropolis in Kastina State as case study. The study examined the causes of banditry and abduction in Northwest Nigeria. It determined the implications of banditry on national development. it determined the extent at which banditry and abduction affects national security and development. The survey research design and convenient sampling method was used in this research to enroll participant who are all residents of Kastina Metropolis. The researcher made use of structured questionnaire as the research instrument to collect relevant data from 120 respondents on the subject matter of the research out of which a total of 105 questionnaires was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequency and table.


5.2 Conclusion

Kidnapping and abduction is prevalent across all the geopolitical zones in Nigeria. In Nigeria, criminal gangs kidnap foreigners to seek for ransom in order to finance their violent movement. Opportunist criminals also commit kidnapping for ransom. In the Northern parts of the country, bandits and other criminal gangs are reported to have committed large scale abductions and kidnapping ranging from the citizens, public servants and foreigner within their regions. Genuine investors now shy away from venturing into the Nigerian business environment that is already troubled with epileptic power supply, high cost of finance and unfavourable political climate. Banditary activities today, is now assumed as a business status for unscrupulous criminals who kidnap for ransom. This has remained one of the greatest drawbacks to investment in Nigeria.Today, social vices in the form of armed robbery, murder, assassination and lately kidnapping have assumed a frightening proportion thus giving vent to full realization of productivity.

Findings from the studies revealed the underlying causes of banditry such as unemployment, poverty, poor leadership, citizen’s alienation from governance, elite proliferation of arms, religious and ethnic differences and weak institution of the law enforcement agencies to mention but a few. Hence these banditry activities has affected the national development but economically and social wise. It has displaced economic activities, distort workplace harmony, impedes individuals economic investment as ransom paying for release of victims of kidnap often affects both the state and household economy and also led to high government expenditure on security matters.


5.3 Recommendation

To stop kidnapping and abduction in Nigeria, the government must solve the above listed conditions instead of simply fighting with the people who engage in this act. It is almost impossible to convince people that they should not help kidnappers if the government is corrupted and people do not have jobs. Therefore, with the help of the government and international organizations, it is highly possible to eliminate the real causes of kidnapping in Nigeria.

In order to ameliorate the spread of kidnapping and stem the tide of abduction in Nigeria, the following recommendations have been proposed. They are:

  1. Considering the spread of kidnapping in Nigeria, federal government should play a central role in developing anew collaborative policy framework rather than always allowing the states alone to deal with the crime.
  2. Government should consider resolving the insecurity problem. A harsh environment will produce a harsh way of thought and doing things.
  3. Deliberate employment opportunities have to be created by government in partnership with the private sector. This will keep people busy and help the law enforcement agencies to shift the habitual criminals from those that are coarse or lured to commit crime due to their economic situations.
  4. The law enforcement agents including the Nigerian Army should be properly equipped with good firing power and communication gadgets. They should retrain their intelligence unit; empower the Nigerian Army with efficient military hardware to ensure effective land patrol. Henceforth, the government should set-up a well-equipped/Effective anti-kidnapping agencies in order to over-power the perpetrators of kidnapping. It is believed that this would assist in stemming the tide of kidnapping in Nigeria
  5. There is a need to educate people by encouraging the media to orchestrate public awareness programs against kidnapping. By providing some specific measures to tackle the menace, which will display as a threat to the kidnappers and persuade them to change and reform from the evil act.

The Implication Of Banditry And Abduction On National Development In Nigeria


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