Impact Of Banditry On Political Activities In Katsina State
Banditry has become a pervasive phenomenon affecting innocent individuals and government activities in Nigeria. It is against this background, therefore, this research was carried out to study the effect of banditry on political activities in Katsina State. The method of data collection and analysis is quantitative through the use of a questionnaire. The data analysis involved simple percentages and tabulation for the research objectives and t-test for the hypotheses test. Finally, the findings of the study showed that Banditry in the state is as a result of selfish interest of the politicians, unemployment, poor governance, financial hardships, among others. From the hypotheses testing, the results showed that there is a significant realtionship between banditry and political activities as it disrupts political campaigns, causes voter apathy, low turn out to election venues among others;. Thus, the government of Katsina State needs an effective response, in order to overcome the menace of banditry as recommended by the researcher.
1.1 Background of the Study
Banditry means occurrence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crime. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to intimidate a person with the intent to rob rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against persons. It has been a common genre of crime, as well as cause violence in contemporary societies, Nigeria Watch, (2011). Banditry associated with political activities. Although driven by diﬀerent needs and factors, it is increasingly an economically-based form of criminality perpetuated by informal networks (Kwaja, 2013). Banditry thrives as a means of ‘primitive’ accumulation of cowherds in the context of subsistence and commercial pastoralism which spills over to other societal facets such as political activities. Furthermore, Banditry is accompanied by rape, kidnapping, organized attacks on villages and communities, and looting.While in essence human security entails how an aspect of human lives will be protected which mainly includes personal security, community security, political security, food security, health security, educational security, environmental security and what have you UNDP (1994).A “more explicit definition” of human security is provided by two main aspects: “safety from such chronic threats as hunger, disease and repression,” and “protection from sudden and hurtful disruption in the patterns of daily life.” Quoting the US Secretary of State reporting to his government on the results of conference in San Francisco in 1945 that set up the United Nations, the Report emphasized that the two freedoms, “freedom from fear” and “freedom from want,” were recognized at the founding of the UN. The Report deplores, however, that the concept of security has been linked only to “freedom from fear UNDP (1994).
Banditry also refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables. The most common examples of Banditry in Nigeria are armed robbery and village raids. Banditry is on the increase in northern Nigeria. This is a region with many security problems; chief among them is Boko Haram’s insurgency in the north east. In the north-central region, herdsmen militancy has become a key security concern. Northwest Nigeria, which used to be the bastion of security and stability, has been hit hard by Banditry.
Banditry in the northwest states of Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara has reached alarming heights in recent years. Bandits terrorize villages with impunity. They actually settled in Zamfara state, setting up fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the frontiers, from where they plot and carry out their operation.
The phenomenon of Banditry, which recently gained currency in Nigeria’s public discourses, is fallout of persistent violence in political activities. The results had been traumatic. There had been massive loss of thousands of lives, forced displacement of locals and total political apathy across Northern Nigeria. Although Banditry is also reelected in criminal escapades like, kidnapping, armed robbery, drug abuse, arson, rape and other forms of violence, the brazen and political figures with sophisticated weapons by suspected herdsmen and reprisal attacks from surviving victims threw it up to the front burner of national security. Banditry threatens the existence of political activities in Katsina State. This may be caused by a number of factors. With the rise in human population, involvement in politics seems more eminent than ever.
But, in recent times, banditry has emerged as another important problem. Politics involve the use of arms to steal votes and disrupt election processes, thereby threatening the very existence of the community’s structure. Conflicts and banditry are closely inter-linked as they are all forms of social insecurity, characterised by weaknesses in the institutional capacity of the State to address the problems of insecurity, joblessness and acute poverty. While conflicts could trigger and cause violence, incidences of banditry in politics could also trigger and cause violent confrontations
In contemporary democracies, elections are acceptable means of electing leaders, an important process that strengthens democratic institutions and facilitate peaceful transition of power (Ugiagbe, 2010). However, in Nigeria all elections conducted since her independence in 1960 have been characterized by widespread violence, intimidation, bribery and corruption. Muhammed (2010) reported that the prevalence of one form of insecurity or the other has been the mainstay of in Nigeria with youths as the major actors in the theatre of violence and that such violence has assumed a serious dimension.
Electio violence according to the International Foundation for Electoral System (IFES) is any act or threat of physical or psychological harm to a person or damage to property, directed at anyone directly involved in an electoral process (voters, candidates, party officers, election workers, election monitors, journalists, etc.) which may disrupt or attempt to disrupt any aspect of the electoral process (Fischer, 2002). Electoral violence could therefore be described as a pre- meditated act that intends to influence the electoral process using foul language, verbal intimidation, blackmail, dangerous weapons, arson and assassination. (Bamfo 2008). At the receiving end of political violence are human beings.Ugiagbe (2010) submits that acts associated with electoral violence include physical harm, (homicide, torture, assault),threats (physical, verbal, intimidation; destruction of property), arson, damage from dangerous objects, forced displacement and ballot box snatching.
Usman (2009) identified five major common grounds of electoral violence; these are during registration, during political campaigns on Election Day, when results are announced, winner takes all syndrome. In their own study, Onwudiweand Bernard (2010) describe the pattern of electoral violence in Nigeria as intra party crisis, inter-party crisis, electoral crisis, violence and community unrest while Ugbaigbe (2010) opines that electoral violence do manifest in the three electoral stages namely, pre-election, during election and postelection stages. The objective of electoral violence is to influence the electoral process with the sole aim to win political competition or power through violence or subverting the ends of the electoral and democratic process through intimidation and disempowerment of political opponents. The increased involvement of Nigerian respondents in electoral violence should be of concern to all. Defining respondents has been a little bit controversial, different authors define it in the context in which the word-youth is used. United Nations Children Education Fund UNICEF (1972) sees youth as those within age bracket 15-25years Johnson cited in Abhuere (2000) asserts that while leadership programmes have no upper age limit, their membership covers people of over 35-45years old, for the purpose of this study youth refers to anyone between the ages of 18 and 45 years.
Most of the world’s development strategies largely depend on the youth. This societal segment is believed to assist in producing sustained economy, social justice and stable democracy of a nation. It is therefore very important if the society could produce a qualitative youth to make these a reality. The primary aim of the research is to understand the relationship between drug abuse among the youth and banditry in Nigeria. The problem is made complex by a series of problem which is climaxed in the failure of the Nigerian state to solve its internal differences.
Drug abusers are employed, although economic factors such as profit maximization encourage drug abuse habit among them which in the long run result in their involvement in political violence act which slows the chance of self-actualization and the chance of the country’s present and long term development.
Lack of higher educational qualifications is another factor that pushes the youth into drug abuse and subsequently to politically related crimes. Similarly, banditry is also a factor responsible for drug abuse among the youth in every part of the Nigerian state.
Respondents are believed to be the most valuable asset for engendering any societal development. They are the engines and pillars upon which every human society depends. Human history indicated how the youth served to depend and develop their various societies, which always promote and give to the society economic balance, political stability and social justice. Gessel (1956) in Radda (2005) refers to youth as the young people whose years fall between 10 and 16.
The report of the Political Bureau (1997) in Abdullahi (2003) classified youth as those between 6-30 years. This latter classification conforms to the formal education years, tampering with which may even danger the youth’s life and subsequently the society at large. The vision 2010 report defined youth as persons aged between 12-30 years. On the other hand, Abdullahi (1982) in Abdullahi (2003) defined the youth as any person in the period between early childhood and old age. These few classifications show the importance of youth to the survival and progress of their respective societies. This is because; youth contribute much towards social, economic, and political developments and defence of their societies.
Based on the forgoing position, this study is set to espouse the implication of youth involvement in political violence which not only undermines the personal fulfilment of the youth but also the development of all phases of the Nigerian state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The development and progress of any human society is dependent on the availability of peace, social and economic equilibrium which gives all the leverage to pursue their heart desires like leadership dreams without any form of fear or panic. Given the forgoing, it is important to assert the fact that all sphere of human endeavour in the present Nigerian state has been transformed into an arena for the manifestation of violence which is a product of government inability to deliver the greatest good for the greatest number of people which has caused youth idleness and by implication their resolve to violence and Banditry. This problem has therefore led to uncontrolled conflict amongst all facets of the society, political activities being one of them. Based on the forgoing position, this research is posed to espouse the impact of banditry on political activities in Katsina state as a negation of the country’s drive for viable economic development and free and fair which is only obtainable in an atmosphere of peace and tranquility.
1.3 Research Questions
- Did residents participate in banditry in Katsina ?
- What are the causes of banditry in Katsina State?
- What is the influence of banditry on political activities in Katsina State
1.4 Research Objectives
- To ascertain if residents participate in banditry in Katsina
- To ascertain the causes of banditry in Katsina State
- To ascertain the influence of banditry on political activities in Katsina State
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is hoped to be significance to parents, politicians, youth and the government. The result of the study will serve as a base for taking paper actions towards reducing violence and Banditry in Nigeria. The study will also serve as a stepping stone educational guideline on the youth involvement in political violence and thuggey. It is important to argue that the enormity of the problems of political violence in Nigeria is very great, since achievement and the failure is significantly perceived by Nigerian society youth and government as a core determinant of success in life, solution to this problem should be found out.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This Project Is Based On Banditry On Political Activities in Katsina State. The study also examined some special factors, causes and effects of political violence and Banditry in Nigeria. It is limited to Local Governments in, Katsina State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The art of science of government or governing especially the governing of political entity such as a nation and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.
The act of physical violence as could be performed by bandits. The oxford dictionary of curt English (1998), defined Banditry as violence act or behavior by ruffians. It is observed that Banditry has relationship with violence activities.
The condition of being young, the appearance, freshness, vigor puberty, spirit etc. the early period of life from puberty to attainment of full growth adolescence.
Is the disruptive or unlawful behavior such as rioting, bullying and vandalism.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research report dividing into five chapters: Chapter One deals with the Introduction of the study which includes Background of the study, Statement of problems, Objective of the study, Limitation, and scope of the study, and the Significance of the study. Chapter Two presented the related literature review regarding the research area on Audit practice in Non-financial firms and therefore sets out the theoretical and empirical grounds for the research. Chapter Three showed the Research Methodology of the study. Chapter Four reports the Analysis and Interpretation of the data. Chapter Five discussed with Summary of the study Conclusions of the study and also presented Suggestions for further research were given.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
It was discovered from the findings of the research that parental background was a major factor influencing banditry among respondents in Katsina State and its effect on political activities. Other influences were unemployment, poverty, political agenda, banditry serving as a lucrative job, weak governance and institutions, poor living standard and low educational attainment. Regarding the effects of banditry in Katsina State, the collected data revealed that banditry used to cause hate speech, disinformation, physical assault, forced protection, blackmail, destruction of property destruction and underdevelopment, political instability, cycle of violence and breed insecurity among others in Katsina State. The findings further showed that the phenomenon of banditry in Katsina State has taken a troublesome facet that needs some imperative measures.
It was also discovered from the findings that the link political activities and banditry in Katsina State was evident through lack of voter turnout, apathy towards politics, unsafe transportation system, low voter card registration etc. The findings also show that the respondents are very highly vulnerable in banditry as such it has been increasing the rate of violent crimes in the society.
Regarding the factors militating against the eradication of banditry in Katsina State, the findings revealed that greed and selfish political ambitions, weak governance, lack of basic amenities, low living standard and ineffectiveness of security forces has been the major challenges behind eradication of electoral violence. The findings also imply that the ineffectiveness of law enforcement agencies to punish perpetrators of banditry in Katsina State limits the eradication of the menace. Also, the findings provide implications that the inability of society to provide a legal framework to prosecute electoral offenders has increases the chances of banditry thriving among respondents in Katsina State.
From the finding of the study, it is revealed that the problem of banditry increasing violence in Katsina State is of great concern to government and individual since it also affects political activities. This problem seems to be increasing at a high rate because of unemployment, money politics, phenomenon of Godfatherism, unpopular candidates, role of security agents, and lack of internal party democracy. The family and parents have a role to play in grooming and maintaining moral and ethical respondents who can engage in positive means of earning a living and desist from social vices and criminal activities such as banditry.
Basically, the problems of banditry have also led to the following effects; It increases the level of crime, it destroys lives and property, it affects growth and development, it affects governance, and it affect the general welfare. Therefore, this study on political activities and banditry among respondents in Katsina State has shown that banditry is be a problem and has adverse effects on the administration of government in the society at large.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- Government should increase the severity of the punishment on the offender and put more security measures to detect the act in order to deter people from the act.
- The creation of jobs and empowerment schemes by the Government and society can help to reduce this social malaise.
- Sensitization, encouragement and promotion of free and fair electioneering process in the society.
- Training and retraining of security agents and agencies to manage and curb this menace.
- Increment and creation of security personnel’s and agencies to watch or curtail this social problem.
- The enlightenment and discouragement of the dangers of corruption to society.
- The Government and society should increase the level of education among citizens.
- Finally, the researcher recommends this work for future investigation and research. This would also build up where this research stopped and fill any further identified gap in order to find lasting solutions to the issue of political activities and banditry in Katsina State for the betterment of the society at large.
Impact Of Banditry On Political Activities In Katsina State
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