An Investigation Of The Impact Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria

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An Investigation Of The Impact Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Adewale in 2005 defined migration as the movement of people from one ecological zone to another, whether temporarily or permanently [Adewale 2005]. A group of people migrates as a result of current situations, and the reasons for doing so vary from person to person depending on the circumstances that led to the choice to migrate. Individuals or families/households with specific economic, social, educational, and demographic traits are targeted through migration. The migration of individuals from rural to urban regions is a typical occurrence in Northwest Nigeria, fueled by the instability that exists there.

Even if there are positives to the mobility, it may cause some problems in rural and urban regions. Rural-urban migration resulted in a fast degradation of the rural economy, resulting to chronic poverty and food insecurity in most rural communities [Mini S.E 2003]. These issues occur mostly as a result of the exodus of young from rural areas, leaving only the elderly, women, and children to work in the rural areas. The capacity of local governments to respond to the social service demands of urban populations is under growing strain as more people migrate to cities.

The word “banditry” refers to a kind of organized crime perpetrated by criminals typically involving threat or use of violence. It entails the use of force, to frighten someone with the intention of robbing, raping, or killing them. Banditry is a crime committed to disorganize or seize control of a particular community. It has long been a popular kind of criminality, as well as a source of violence in modern countries (Nigeria Watch, 2011). Banditry seems to be widespread in Nigeria, and it has been on the rise in recent years. Much like the Northeast, where Boko Haram terrorists have wrought havoc in the last 10 years, Nigeria’s northwest is quickly becoming another significant regional theater of conflict. A situation that began as small land conflicts between herders and farmers has grown into an unsolvable catastrophe that poses a huge danger to national and regional security. The level of rural banditry has been increasing since 2014, attracting a lot of attention while assuming increased political undertones are masterminds to this. However, it has a huge impact on the survival of the common man and the general public, which is why most rural settlers leave their homes and migrate to urban areas in order to secure their lives. Banditry is a kind of armed violence motivated primarily by a desire to steal and loot. It is driven by the desire for financial gain. Individuals and communities with material assets, or, in the majority of situations, ordinary people who have been uprooted from their homes and forced to move, are the victims. Banditry has reached disturbing new heights in the northern states of Kaduna, Zamfara, and Katsina in recent years. Villages are terrorized with impunity by bandits. They have established fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the borderlands, from whence they plan and execute out their operations against rural community settlers, in states such as Ogun, Kaduna, and Kastina State, respectively.


1.2 Statement of Problem

In environments where there is minimal deterrent, crime flourishes. There are several chances for criminal activities in most of Nigeria’s rural villages. For one reason, some of these settlements are in rural places where the government has little or no presence. More crucially, forest areas divide and intersperse families and schools in certain circumstances (Nigeria Watch, 2011). As a result, they are susceptible to banditry. The lack of adequate community policing structures capable of dealing with the hinterlands’ unique security problems aggravates the situation. The ongoing banditry activities in Nigeria’s northwest region have forced rural inhabitants to flee their homes in seek of help in the city. The ramifications for both rural and urban communities might be enormous. Aside from relocation, the violence has impeded agricultural activity and increased the possibility of severe food insecurity. Livelihoods have been disrupted, fear and insecurity have escalated among the people, and IDPs and host communities are vying for precious resources including water, land, and food. Women, children, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable, while security, food, and other basic requirements are top priorities in afflicted communities (Nigeria Watch, 2011). However, it is against this context that this research looks at the influence of banditry on Nigerian rural-urban migration.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically it is geared

  1. To evaluate the factors that leads to rural-urban migration
  2. To investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities
  3. To examine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry.
  4. To find out banditry can be curbed in other to reduce rural urban migration.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It would further enable policy makers on the need to make policies that would cover rural-urban migration and ensure that security of lives is made priority. It will enlighten community settlers on the need to be security conscious and prepare themselves with other self-defence mechanism in the absence of quick response from government enforcement agencies. Finally the study will also contribute to the general body of knowledge.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically the study will evaluate the factors that leads to rural-urban migration. The study will also investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities. The study will further examine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry. Lastly, the study will find out banditry can be curbed in other to reduce rural urban migration. Hence the study is delimited to Kaduna State.


1.6. Research Hypothesis

  • H0: banditry have not contributed to rural-urban migration
  • H0: The rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry is low

1.7 Limitation of Study

In the course of this study the researcher encountered few challenges which majorly includes:

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Operational Definitions

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Rural:

A Rural area or Countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. This include village and aggro-communities

Urban:

Urban refers to a developed geographical area such as town or cities.

Migration:

Migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location.


An Investigation Of The Impact Of Banditry On Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria


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