The Implication Of Herdsmen Banditry Activities On Food Security In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

The Implication Of Herdsmen Banditry Activities On Food Security In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food security in Nigeria using Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident of Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that herdsmen banditry has also negatively impacted food security. The implications of these is reflected on the reduction in the number of farmers due to their killings, there is impoverishment of farmers due to kidnappings, farmers are not willing to go to their farmlands as they will be chased out, reduction in the quantity of crops stored in grain silos, hence when they manage to cultivate few crop they use for personal consumption or sale at higher prices. The study concludes that herdsmen banditry activities has hampered the farming activities and food security in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State. Therefore, it is recommended that troops of local vigilantes should be stationed in farming area of each Local Government Area and they should be equipped to strive toward devising new strategies in confronting the bandits and ending banditry in Benue state. This is important considering the fact that the bandits still carry out attacks in the LGA despite the presence of the military troops.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Descriptive Statistics
  • 4.3 Inferential Statistics

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Herdsmen, and banditry has been major problem since the Nigeria returned to civil rule in 1999 after 16 years of persistent military dictatorship Peace has remained elusive in the country. Fulani herdsmen are popular for being cattle rearers which makes it essential for them to navigate their prized cows, from one location to another in search for food and water. As a result of this regular search, it may lead to the invasion of other people’s farms by the herdsmen.

The Fulani Herdsmen banditry remains a major issue in Nigeria. So far, thousands have been killed and many more have been expelled from their homes, and the Nigerian government does not appear willing to initiate any forceful action against them. Rather, they are requesting for pieces of land from states in order to provide the rampaging herdsmen with permanent feeding ground. They are largely nomads who go through towns with their cattle. During their journey, they frequently trespass farmlands owned by locals in their host communities, destroying crops and valuables. Attempts by farmers to prevent them from causing havoc are met with stiff and violent resistance. Most times, the farmers are overpowered, injured and killed, while others are evicted from their homes. Sometimes, the herdsmen are accused of taking these opportunities to steal, rape, raze houses and kill innocent members of the communities they pass through (Akinkuolie, 2018).

Since herdsmen banditry involved acts of robbery and violence on the people particularly rural dwellers who mainly engaged in farming, cattle rearing and other food production activities it is bound to have impacts on food security.
Food security according to the World Food Summit 1996 “exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active healthy life” (FAO, 2008). The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 2010) simply defines food security as the availability of food in terms of production, distribution and consumption. Any form of violence that leads to insecurity in rural areas where majority of the people are farmers is bound to affect food security. In the light of the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food security in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Herdsmen, banditry have become a major house hold name in Nigeria and any part of the world. Crisis in any part of the country tend affect food security by creating food shortage, which disrupt both gross domestic product (GDP) and net domestic product (NDP) of the country. Food crops cannot be planted, or harvested in a crisis area where there are herdsmen attack. The herdsmen invade farmland belonging to farmers thereby creating scarcity of land for the cultivation of food crops which in turned threaten food security of the country. This constant crisis has threatened the security of the State, reduced its economic productivity, and deepened food crisis in Nigeria. While there have been several crises between the Fulani herdsmen and the farmers for more than two decades, the escalation reached another level in 2014 with the Fulani herdsmen killing 1,229 people in comparison with 63 deaths in 2013. With more than 500 deaths by July 2016 and January 2018 more than 73 persons were given mass burial in Benue State alone out the killing that were not knowing. The crisis is targeted to take over lands among other intentions. The crisis has been commonly credited to Fulani herdsmen expanding from the traditional grazing routes into the agricultural land which in turn always results into crisis over access to pasture. The escalation of the crisis has made many Nigerians and international observers including the United States to consider Fulani herdsmen as the second most dangerous group in Nigeria after Boko-Haram group. In the light of the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food security in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general focus of this study is to examine the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food security in Nigeria. Specifically it will

  1. To determine the prevalence of herdsmen banditry activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State
  2. To find out the different forms of banditry attacks on farming communities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State.
  3. Find out whether herdsmen banditry activities have hampered the farming activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State.
  4. To determine whether herdsmen banditry activities have contributed to food insecurity in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will validate this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of herdsmen banditry activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State?
  2. What are the causes of herdsmen banditry activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State?
  3. Has herdsmen banditry activities hampered the farming activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State?
  4. Has herdsmen banditry activities contributed to food insecurity in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H0: Herdsmen banditry activities has no negative implications on food security in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Herdsmen banditry activities has negative implications on food security in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be relevant to the general public. It will heighten the awareness of the public on the need to prepare themselves against the upcoming food scarcity. It will open the eyes of government on the urgent need to put security measure around farming communities exposed to attacks to avoid the nation suffering food insecurity. It will equip the Ministry of Agriculture with information on the implications of national food insecurity and the need put strategies in place to ensure that other regions of the nation start food crop production without dependence on the crises region. This study will also educate those from regions(especially the southeast, south-south, western states) of the country who have interest in farming on the need to venture into it immediately without total dependence as this will help the country not to suffer food shortage. Lastly this Study will serve as a reference material for other researchers and give room for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The general focus of this study is to examine the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food Scarcity in Nigeria. It will examine the different forms of banditry attacks on farming communities. It will determine the extent at which herdsmen banditry activities obstruct food crop production. It will investigate the implications of herdsmen banditry activities on food crop production. It will determine if herdsmen banditry activities has any significant effect on food scarcity. However the scope of this Study is limited to Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Farming:

Farming is growing crops or keeping animals by people for food and raw materials.

Famine:

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

Food Crops:

Food crops refers to the world’s major food supply derived from plants; food crops consist of grains, legumes (including dried beans), seeds and nuts, vegetables, fruit, herbs and spices, beverage plants such as tea and coffee, and so forth.

Food Scarcity:

A scarcity or shortage of food may happen when not enough food is produced, such as when crops fail due to drought, crises, pests, or too much moisture. But the problem can also result from the uneven distribution of natural resource endowment for a country, and by human institutions, such as government, public policy and terrorist attacks on farming communities

Food Insecurity:

Food insecurity is measured as a household-level concept that refers to uncertain, insufficient, or unacceptable availability, access, or utilization of food.

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Herdsmen:

Herdsmen or Fulani pastoralists are nomadic or semi-nomadic. Fulani people whose primary occupation is raising livestock.

Crisis:

A crisis is any event or period that will lead, or may lead, to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, or all of society. Crises are negative changes in the human or environmental affairs, especially when they occur abruptly, with little or no warning.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The main focus of this study is to examine the implication of herdsmen banditry activities on food security in Nigeria using Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State as a case study. It examined the prevalence of herdsmen banditry activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State; the different forms of banditry attacks on farming communities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State; the effect of herdsmen banditry activities on farming activities in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State etc.

The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher purposively selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred forty-one (141) was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square.


5.2 Conclusion

In Nigeria, various forms of insecurity such as herdsmen attack and banditry have negative impacts on farming system and food security in the country. This attack portends danger to farming system and food security as many farmers are very scared to go to their farms to engage in irrigation farming among other food producing activities.
Findings of the study reveal that herdsmen banditry has also negatively impacted food security. The implications of these is reflected on the reduction in the number of farmers due to their killings, there is impoverishment of farmers due to kidnappings, farmers are not willing to go to their farmlands as they will be chased out, reduction in the quantity of crops stored in grain silos, hence when they manage to cultivate few crop they use for personal consumption or sale at higher prices.

Findings of the study therefore concludes that herdsmen banditry activities has hampered the farming activities and food security in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State.


5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendation were made

  1. NSCDC should deploy enough agro-rangers corps to Ogun State with a view to provide security for farmers as they presently harvest crops and to ensure that the irrigation farming season commences smoothly.
  2. Troops of local vigilantes should be stationed in farming area of each Local Government Area and they should be equipped to strive toward devising new strategies in confronting the bandits and ending banditry in Ogun state. This is important considering the fact that the bandits still carry out attacks in the LGA despite the presence of the military troops.
  3. Local government councils should contact their members of House of Representatives with a view to assist the vigilante groups with operational materials and logistics to enable them confront the bandits.
  4. Farmers should be enlightened on the need to desist from planting crops such as maize, millet and sorghum which will provide cover to bandits to enable them come close to village settlements undetected to rest during the day time and attack in the evening or night time.
  5. The Federal, State and Local Governments including the communities should come together to hold a conference with a view to mapping out strategies to end banditry in Ogun State.
  6. The State Government should work out a compensation plan to assist cattle owners whose cattle were rustled by the bandits and such people have no means of livelihood at present. The compensation scheme should be in cash or some number of cows, sheep or goats can be given to them to start cattle rearing to mitigate their sufferings and lessen the traumatic experiences.

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