Ways Of Generating Additional Income In Academic Libraries
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The study assesses the alternative ways of generating additional and income generation activities that academic libraries can adopt to support the funding of academic libraries in Nigeria, using a case study of Alvan Ikoku College of Education Library, Owerri in Imo state. Survey method was adopted with the use of questionnaire to gather data and information. Copies of questionnaire were distributed to the main stakeholders of the academic library, out of 200 copies of questionnaire distribute, and 121 copies were retrieved representing a response rate of 60.5% of the sample size.
The study brought to light that the library has been perceived as a non-profit unit for far long, bindery and photocopying activities are among avenues for income generation and creating awareness of such activity needs urgent attention. The study recommends among others that librarians should also be given training and short courses on how to generate alternative income in the library. Besides, in showing readiness the management of the parent institution should also provide the necessary tools and equipment needed for the new step.
1.1 Background of the Study
The Harrods Librarian glossary and reference book defines academic library as those of universities, polytechnics, colleges schools and all their institutions forming part of or associated with reaching and learning. The contents or collections of academic libraries usually cover many branches of knowledge and may weigh move on those areas having to directly with the aims, purposes or objectives, for which the institutions are established. Funk and waynals new Encyclopedia sees an academic library as college and university libraries which jitters from rezendi libraries in their needs to serve readers with various levels of expertise and in their responsibilities to support the teaching and research programmes of their home institutions such libraries usually obtain most of their financial support from the parent institutions.
Sequel to the definition. It can be deduced that academic libraries operate in accordance with the principle and objectives of the parent body establishing them. All services are geared forwards the academic community, with little or no attention gives to those outside the library community, this to meet the objects which include. To provide references and lending services appropriate to the needs of students and staff of the institution, such materials include dictionaries encyclopedia year books, bibliographies. Another objective of the academic library is to provide an actively information service and this may be extended beyond the institution to the local industries and commercials.
Various sources by which academic library derived their needed funds for capital and recurrent expenses apart from privately owned institution of higher learning, public universities and other publicly owned higher institutions are expected to at list pay their ways.
Academic libraries derived their funds from external and internal sources while the externally derived funds from the parent institution for an academic library and donations form individuals and organizations.
Ways of generating additional income in academic libraries or various sources of fund of academic libraries include;
- Government/Ownership Grant
- Gifts and Private Contributions
- Miscellaneous sources of funds.
In the history and development of academic library in Nigeria, the problem of fund is remained an intractable phenomenon. This factors constitutes the basic and accomplishment of the main aims and objectives of establishing is their fore indispensable in the smooth running of any library. It is an acknowledged fact that no one singular library can buy all print and non prints materials that can adequately meet the needs all user in the academic environment. In the same token it has not been possible for most academic libraries to boast of enough personnel of professional competence and required sense of commitment commensurate to the library services being demanded by its clienteles due to inadequate funding of the libraries by the government. The result of the impending global economic situation on the other hand has drastically affected the attainment or achievement of basic standards in funding in the institutions.
Historical background of Alvan Ikoku college of education library, Owerri Imo state
The Alvan Ikoku college of education formally advanced teachers training college Owerri was established in 1962 with an embryo library with stock strength of 2,500 volumes is one of the college buildings at it former temporary site. Called shell camp.
Also on the other hand, a size member commission charged with the responsibility of conducting an investigation into Nigerian’s need in the field of post primary certificate and higher education over the next twenty years (1960-1980) was constituted in 1959, this was headed by Sir Eric Ashaby. The commission deport was submitted in September 1960. in reaction to the report, the federal government issued a while paper to the parliament in 1961. in it, the federal government approved a teacher’s training college in the three regions. Since one of the colleges was to be sited in the Eastern region, its government approached UNESCO for assistance to enable it perform the obligation. This request of this, the college was established.
By the middle of 1967, the library was moved into its permanent shaped building, with a floor space of 10,080 square feet provided by UNESCO its strategic position makes it handy from all sides for both students and staff. In April 1970, the college was re-opened as the Nigerian Civil won ended. After necessary repairs, the structure was again put its use. In April 1973, by edict No. 11 of 1973, the advanced teachers training college was given an autonomous states and renamed Alvan Ikoku college Education. The Institution was up graded in 1979 to a degree awarding school affiliated to university of Nigeria Nsukka.
Presently, there are five departments of the college library Viz: Administration, Acquisition Technical Services. Several and readers services departments. In terms of stock the library has acquired over $1,891 volumes of body and about 3,684 journal titles. Its collections grew to over 50,000 volumes presently there is not clear art number of its volume.
1.2 Statement of problem
Academic Library Funding have been a major concern to library managers. For any academic library to fulfill the purposes of its existence and to remain a citadel of knowledge, it must be funded adequately. In many instance the budgetary allocation are not released as act when due.
This is turn delays the implementation of the programmes of these libraries. When the funds are eventually released, it would usually not be up to 50% of the expected sum, most universities especially state owned universities. Academic library managers have complained that the number of journals and newspaper that are being supplied to them on daily and weekly basis fall shaort of thir expectations. The researchers and students alike who are in need pf these materials are not always satisfies with materials on ground.
The reasons for the short supply of these materials are attributed to shortage of fund. Added to the above is the shortages of relevant text books as currently being expericed in academic libraries. Inadequate provision of funds has prepared the provision of current materials needed by the provision of current materials needed by the staff and students in academic reduction in the quality of education provide.
1.3 Scope / Limitation of the study
This study is restructured to the funding of Alvan Ikoku Library Owerri. Major emphasis was laid on identifying the funding problems associated with the academic library under review Alvan Ikoku library.
The researcher was limited in this works with regards the time required to involve in extending to other academic libraries.
Another reason for selecting the institutions was to enable him carry out a through work that shall stand the test of time.
1.4 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are as follows.
- To establish what the present situation is with the academic libraries in terms of funding within the period under review.
- To establish low adequate funding shall facilitate the running of these libraries and enable them achieve their primary objectives.
- To find alternative source of funding for academic libraries. To highlight problems associated with inadequate funding of academic libraries.
- To make recommendation on how to overcome inadequate funding and other problems associated with running of academic libraries with social attention with Alvan Ikoku College of Education.
1.5 Research Questions
- Does inadequate funding of academic libraries limit the scope of services provided to the clientele?
- Does the inability of the parent institution relelase fund as at when due to the managers of academic libraries minimize their ability of acquire library materials?
- Does the inability of the managers of academic libraries to exploit other sources of revenue limit their available fund?
- Does the inability of the parent policies still affects the funding of their academic libraries?
- Does lack of honesty on the part of libraries hinder academic libraries from living up to expectations?
1.6 Definition of terms
Library Built in college of university for student use.
Making money available for the running of librarians.
Professional staff in charge of the library.
Collecting of library materials
Conclusion And Recommendation
Library and information Services (LIS) in Nigeria is not adequately funded. The fate of academic libraries is not different as funding for these libraries, which comes largely from their parent institutions and ETF, now TET-Fund has not been sufficient. As the purchasing power of revenue accruing to different levels/tiers of government in Nigeria continues to diminish, responsibilities and obligations of these governments continue to expand. This has severely limited the amount of money available for the capital and recurrent expenses of the country’s academic libraries, amongst other educational and social services. It is, therefore, very clear, as captured in Nigerian library literature, that academic libraries in the country cannot continue to rely on the present sporadic and insufficient budgetary allocations by government through their parent institutions. In line with the foregoing, some income-generating ventures have been identified, which if implemented, would yield the additional financial resource required to meet the increasingly complex demand of library services in 21st Century tertiary institutions.
Since academic libraries are still functioning in supporting research, learning and teaching in their status it is paramount that, the issue of alternative income generation is given a critical attention. This is because the budgetary allocation to the academic libraries is woefully inadequate most at times. This suggest that there is the urgent need for the librarians to get involve with strategies that could assist in the generation of alternative income for the survival of the library so as to provide quality services to the satisfaction of the users.
Based on the findings of the research is it prudent to recommends that management of libraries should lobby for more funding especially for their budgetary allocation. Librarians should also be given training and short courses on how to generate alternative income in the library. Besides, in showing readiness the management of the parent institution should also provide the necessary tools and equipment needed for the new step.
The alternative sources of fund recommended in this study might appear both novel and revolutionary. But such unconventional but creative funding options might hold the key to the generation of the substantial outlay of finance required to provide library services befitting of tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria. What is needed is a break from the present dissatisfactory arrangement through demonstrable political will, enactment of enabling legislative instruments, creation of workable financial administrative framework and judicious management of available financial resources.
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