Librarians’ Adoption And Competence In Migrating To Web-Based Information Services In Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Librarians’ Adoption And Competence In Migrating To Web-Based Information Services In Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka


This study was carried out to assess librarians’ adoption and competence in migrating to web-based information services in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka, Anambra State. World Wide Web (WWW) and Internet becomes a new media of libraries for information storage and information providing with greater speed and economy. The web technology and Internet has changed the way of information is stored, retrieved and communicated in the libraries. As more libraries move towards providing their services in a digital environment, the improved access to remote library collections is making the use of electronic information resources more realistic and more attractive. This study discusses about the web-based library services available in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka. This study focuses on the use of web-based library services by the Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka users and examines how Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka provides web access to its collections and user support for that access and the problems faced by the users in accessing web-based library services. Findings show that Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka is yet to exploit full potential of the web forms, and lagging behind in effective use of library website as it has some problems like ICT-infrastructure and manpower. It is also troubled with slow speed internet connection. This study highlights the current state of web-based library services against which Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka can benchmark its own web-based library services. This study also has some recommendations for increasing the effective use of web-based library services.

Table of Contents

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Hypothesis
  • 1.5 Research Design and Methodology
  • 1.5.1 Research Strategy
  • 1.5.2 Population and Sampling
  • 1.5.3 Methods of Data Collection
  • 1.5.4 Methods of Data Analysis
  • 1.6 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Review of Related Literature
  • 2.2.1 Literature before 2000
  • 2.2.2 Literature after 2000
  • 2.3 Overview of Web-based Information Services
  • 2.4 Web-based Information Services
  • 2.5 Conclusion

Chapter Three:

Web-Based Information Services in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Web-based Information Services in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka
  • 3.3 Conclusion

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis, Discussion and Findings

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Analysis, Discussion and Findings
  • 4.2.1 Data about Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka
  • 4.2.2 Data from Sample Users
  • 4.3 Conclusion
  • 4.4 Implementation of Web-based Information Services in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka
  • 4.4.1 Prerequisite of Implementation
  • 4.4.2 Model Plan for Implementation
  • 4.5 Conclusion

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

In this digital age, the great advances made by modern science and technology have speeded up information exchange and information distribution. The internet and web search engines assist users to obtain large amount of information with great speed. On the one hand, large amount of information does exist around information seekers, but on the other hand, scattered and disparate information resources, various formats, and dynamic channels confuse them. Under library settings, for example, many library users need assistance to access, locate, convert, synthesize, and evaluate information effectively and efficiently. Academic information services librarians and executives have primary responsibility of designing, developing, enhancing, implementing, and leveraging high quality library user services to satisfy library users’ dynamic needs.

The web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human – human communication, but also those machines would be able participate and help. Most of the web based library service provider is getting a lot of feedback from their effective users. So libraries also introducing more and more services on the web, a tremendous amount of content and the system has had some continuity over time.

The web has become commonplace throughout the world, a natural complement to traditional library services and develops innovative ways to meet the information needs of users. Traditional online services have transformed themselves into webbased services using web technologies. The web also offers libraries the potential for more revolutionary change as well. Library websites have become the main point of access and catalyst for new web-based library services.

Emergence of websites is the ideal medium through which knowledge and information can be disseminated very efficiently to every nook and corner of the world. The library is only one of many institutions changing in the face of technological advances. With its wealth of data and information-sharing capabilities, web is a natural complement to traditional library services. The inherent character of the web offers many advantages and improvements for library services including the ability to hyperlink to other resources, use of a graphical interface, and access for remote users. Web based Library services means that library users can obtain services whenever they need them and other databases are accessible twenty four hours per day from anywhere on campus.

The first generation of information retrieval tools was designed for use with bibliographic databases. The first generation provided access to references to the end documents rather than to the documents themselves, and indexing and searching were thus applied to document surrogates, such as titles or abstracts. These tools require considerable human efforts to collect, arrange, code, and annotate the various resources. A primary benefit of the first generation of tools is providing users with easy browsing capabilities.

The second generation of tools attempts to collect and index resources as an automated function. Automatic collection and indexing reduces the amount of human effort. The ability to search through massive amounts of information and locate the desired information for the user is the primary benefit of the second generation of tools.
The third generation deals with World Wide Web Meta search engines, such as Harvester and Meta crawler.

The fourth generation involves new ideas such as search agent technology currently being developed to search for information on the web.

Web-based search engines are as a means of finding relevant pages on the Internet. Different search engines, directory, meta-search engines, gateways, subject portals, electronic journals and on line databases each type could be used in a different way, from simple keyword searching up to peer reviewed web sites.

A library website is a virtual public face, the quasi equivalent of the front door, signage, pathfinders, surrogates to the collections, services and it is used as a window to the world wide web (WWW) (Diaz, 1998). It also serves as an integrated interface to a wide variety of digital resources and web-based library services for users over a network (Letha, 2006).

As more libraries move towards providing services in a web environment, the improved access to remote library collections is making the use of electronic information resources more realistic and more attractive. Indian university libraries also have realized the paradigm shift in library services and they are providing better web-based library services to their current techno savvy users.

Traditional library operation system is laborious, hackneyed and time consuming. So to get rid of this and to save time of the reader web-based library services have been introduced.

Library is a repository of resources. It is an integral part of the educational system whose primary function is to serve users (students, faculty, researchers and staff and others). Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in education. Electronic resources (E-Resources) are the prime ingredients and they become a common part of the suite of most academic library resources today.

AACR2 Rule 9.0A1 states “electronic resources consist of data (information representing numbers, text, graphics, images, maps, moving images, music, sounds, etc.), programs (instructions, etc., that process the data for use), or combinations of data and programs.(Rao, Srinivas)

The library and information centre is an important component of any educational institution, which is the hub of the teaching and learning activities where students, teachers, and researchers can explore the vast resources of information. In the traditional libraries, users have to spend much more time for searching a small piece of information and for that they have to depend mainly on the library professional or library staff. But in the age of information communication technology, computers are being used for day -to-day housekeeping activity of the library, which saves the time of the end users and library professionals also and at the same time avoid duplication of work and make the library service smooth and effective (Sinha, 1990).

Libraries are mainly entrusted with a host of predetermined tasks like acquiring, organizing, preserving, retrieving and disseminating information to the users. Right from ancient times to the present Internet era, the primary objective of library has always been this. However, the way this purpose has been achieved has drastically changed. Information technology has influenced the very nature of business and management libraries.

Libraries play different roles for different people. To some, a library is a place to read books; be furnished with the current news from up-to-date newspapers; to do research; a place to access or share information in response to a particular need; etc. Now days, libraries and librarians play an important role in providing access to information, organizing it, and helping users to find the information they need. Consequently, information services have become a key element for libraries. The present user’s interest is to get the information in need within a given timeframe. The timeframe varies with the user’s mission or task. For example the timeframe for a surgeon preparing for an operation before entering a theater is much shorter and critical than that of a teacher preparing for the next lecture.

Though the present users can get access to the vast amount of information on the Internet and online databases, the role of library information services has no where reduced. The amount and diversity of the ever-increasing information on the Internet and in online databases is one of the major attributes to the increased role of library information service units. The lack of information organization on the web; the demands of users who want quicker and clear answers in response to their information needs; technological skill deficiency among some information seekers to efficiently and effectively search for the right information; are among the few causes that have raised the need for information services more than before in libraries.

They are undergoing significant changes today not only in outlook but also in function, services, methods and techniques for collection development, processing and dissemination of information (Singh & Krishna).

With the advancement in technology and its direct application to libraries, business and management libraries are becoming lean and agile libraries that streamline information supply. The pervasive nature of the internet, coupled with platform independent database connectivity is turning library portals more and more effective. The main purpose of this study is to study the availability of websites at technical; institutes and the extent of library information hosted on it. The study also aims to examine the reasons behind why websites have provides sufficient information and brings attention of majority of users and to identify the library services that they wish to carry through the internet.

Computer culture all over the world has been continuously and rapidly changing the library and information scenario. It is challenging the professional duty and responsibility to assist its clientele to make utmost use of all the advances of information technology which are emerging fast. It is quite obvious that new skills, competence and professional capability are required to face the present challenges of coping with information revolution. The present trend is toward Digital Library and western world has already done some significant innovations towards the establishment of electronics libraries (Chandel& begum, 1998:16).

Because of its outstanding efficiency, performance and ability to handle large volumes of information /documents, the use of technology is gaining wide popularity in the field of librarianship and information services. Many library and information routines are being performed proficiently by the use of internet.

Karl jaspers describe the university as a “community of scholars and students engaged in the task of seeking truth”. The development of a country depends largely on its research output. University is the highest academic institutions of a country, where intelligent, trained manpower, scientist and research worker produced and boundary of knowledge are broaden. The quality of education and research depends to a great extent on the quality of a library.

The university library should be the centre of all the activities of a university.

According to Paul Buck, “The degree of educational advances in proportionate to the potential of the library to respond”. The quality of education can be expected without a library.

The university library plays an important role in the overall development of a university. Undergraduate, graduate, post graduate, students often visit the library to search books, to borrow books and other materials, and to use other services. Teachers, researchers also visit library to look for journals, books, reference materials etc. With the application of information technology and the advent of Web-based services, contents are now available to students on their desktop. Various consortia provide access to digital contents any time and in any place. Students want to see traditional services transformed into digital information services.

The basic function of the university library is to provide the study materials to its users in short possible time to serve the information requirements of the students and teachers. In this digital age, most of the university libraries have started computerization of in-house activities. Many Integrated Library Management software (ILMS) LIBSYS, SLIM ++, LIBERTY, Trodoon, LIBMAN, and open source software such as NewGenlib, Koha, Weblis, ABCD, Evergreen are also available in public domain to automate the library operations. Unquestionably the reputation and status of any college library depends on the quality information services provided to clients but it is rather difficult to ignore the advances in the field of ICT and libraries must adapt the new mode of information services.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

We are in the digital age; the primary role of information in this age is in many digital cases. The primary means of sharing information is the digital network. With the digital technology, information in various formats- text, audio, video and electronic can be created, stored, organized, accessed and transmitted with relative ease, and in forms that we could not have thought of earlier.

The significant growth in information technology allows more people to become independent users of information sources. The convenience of remote access, browsing, retrieval, and document delivery means that patrons can use libraries without the help of a librarian and without physically visiting the library.

The digital age has brought about many changes to libraries, some of these changes having been taking place before the introduction of the Internet in the mid 1990s.The 1980s and early 1990 saw much discussion in libraries on issues such as print versus electronic; “access versus ownership”, “mediated versus unlimited online searching” and professional concerns not gradually widened to include electronic licensing and consortia collection development.

Today the digital age has brought many aspects of library services. The card catalog has been replaced with OPAC in many libraries, users now search for information from their desktop; users down load e-books on to their PDAs, full text retrieval of information sources is becoming common place and services are increasingly becoming personalized and pay as use.

In the 1990s, the internet became the primary platform for libraries to build and deliver information resources, services and instructions. Lately library user information services, also called library user public service became evolving into two sections: traditional library user information services and electronic library user information services.

De Jager (2002) found that use of the library improved student exam results. The main objective of the college library is to provide conceptual information and provide information to students for preparing assignments. Teaching relies more on lectures than on textbooks.

The Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka (Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka) plays an important role in the overall development of students. The students of different level like graduate, post-graduate need to visit the library to borrow books and other material, and to use other services. With the application of information technology and the advent of Web-based services, contents can be available to students on their desktop.

At present, Dhaka University (Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka) has 37,800 students from 70 departments under 13 faculties and 11 institutes. These students need books, reference materials, journal articles etc to carry out their study and to make standard note. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka also has M. Phil and Ph. D researcher who need various types of book, newspapers clippings, journal articles, reference materials to carry out their research. Moreover, Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka is one of the leading research institutes in Bangladesh. Most importantly, the University’s research enterprise is devoted to the search for knowledge and truth that upholds the
University’s commitment to education. This combination of activities strengthens the University’s mission of service resulting in the continued improvement of quality of life for the citizens of Bangladesh & the rest of the world. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka has a great responsibility to provide required materials to student, researcher and teacher. But it is very difficult to provide quality services to this great number user manually.

To serve this purpose, internet and web makes a great opportunity for library as various types of library services can be served to its users concurrently within less time. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka can also take this blessing of internet and web to meet the requirements of its users.

Although various types of research has been done in past on library automation, internet using behavior of library users, information gathering behavior of users but very little work has been done on this problem. The problem of the present study is as below.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of web technology in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka library to serve the student needs & find the problem to migrate in web based information services. It specifically focused on the following objectives:

  1. To study the present web products and services available in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka library.
  2. To find out the different purposes of using web technology and services.
  3. To assess to what extent users are utilized web based library services and facilities.
  4. To identify the type of problems faced by users when using web technology in libraries under study.
  5. To find out the user satisfaction with the web based products and services provided by the Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka.
  6. To suggest measures for improvement of existing resources and services and implementation of web.

1.4 Hypothesis

The study was carried out based on the following hypotheses:

  1. Hypothesis 1: The majority of the users of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka use the internet on a regular basis.
  2. Hypothesis 2: Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka (Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka) provides some kinds of web-based information services.
  3. Hypothesis 3: Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka is converting its contained resources into electronic format.
  4. Hypothesis 4: Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka has a collection development policy that is revised keeping in view the electronic resources.
  5. Hypothesis 5: Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka are striking balance between print and electronic resources, specifically the periodicals.
  6. Hypothesis 6: The faculty and research scholars of universities under study are familiar with e- resources and prefer to use them for research, publication and teaching in that order.
  7. Hypothesis 7: The students (undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate) faculty members, research scholars are aware of web-based information services.
  8. Hypothesis 8: Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka are facing budget limitation in migrating to web-based information services.
  9. Hypothesis 9: The users of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka want more web-based information services.

1.5 Methodology of the Research

1.5.1 Research Strategy

This research has been conducted to identify the present situation of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka in using technology and providing web-based information services to its users. This research also tries to identify the challenges and opportunities of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka in providing web-based information services.

In this study, a survey model has been followed. Survey methodology as a scientific field seeks to identify principles about the sample design, data collection instruments, statistical adjustment of data, and data processing, and final data analysis that can create systematic and random survey errors. Survey errors are sometimes analyzed in connection with survey cost. Cost constraints are sometimes framed as improving quality within cost constraints, or alternatively, reducing costs for a fixed level of quality. Survey methodology is both a scientific field and a profession, meaning that some professionals in the field focus on survey errors empirically and others design surveys to reduce them. For survey designers, the task involves making a large set of decisions about thousands of individual features of a survey in order to improve it.

This entire survey was conducted from June 2014 to December 2014.The tools and techniques of survey method are used to collect data from the sample users for the following reasons;

  1. The population of this research are very much wide
  2. Survey method bring out the accurate information
  3. The collected information is dependable and reliable and has great amount of certainty
  4. The chances of objectivity and bias are reduced to the minimum
  5. This method also time consuming and economically viable.

The study was limited to some faculties, institutes, research centers and libraries of Dhaka University.

The faculties are: Faculty of Arts, Science, Law, Business Studies, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences, Earth & Environmental Sciences, and Engineering & Technology.

The name of the institutes are: Institute of Education and Research, Institute of Business Administration, Institute of Social Welfare and Research, Institute of Modern Languages, Institute of Information Technology, Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, Institute of Leather Engineering &Technology.

The name of the research center is: Japan Study Centre.

1.5.2 Population and Sampling

The population of this study includes faculty members, students (Undergraduate, graduate and post graduate), researchers, administrative staffs and library personnel of Dhaka University. At present, there are 70 departments under 13 faculties, 11 institutes and 34 bureaus and research centers in Dhaka University (University of Dhaka website, visited date December 05, 2014).The sample was drawn from some faculties, institutes and bureaus and research centers.

Fifty (50) sample library users from different categories such as faculty members, students (undergraduate, graduate and post graduate), researchers, library professionals and administrative staff have been selected for interview through a semi-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were delivered personally to respondent. The purpose of the study was explained at that time briefly and adequately and respondents fill up the questionnaire and return.

1.5.3 Methods of Data Collection

To collect primary data, two sets of semi-structured questionnaire have been designed based on the review of literature keeping in view of the objectives of the study. One set of questionnaire (Appendix II) was prepared for the survey of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka resources, services and web-based information services which was filled up by the librarian and his representative. Another set of questionnaire (Appendix III) was prepared for the library user’s to assess their library using behavior, satisfaction towards various services provided by the library and to collect their opinion towards web-based information services.

Secondary data were collected from available books, publications, research studies, journal articles, websites, and articles on web-based information services, use of ICT in libraries, library automation and use of e-resources.

1.5.4 Methods of Data Analysis

For analysis of data, SPSS and Microsoft Excel software have been used. To entry data and coding option has been used after the receiving of all completed questionnaires. Both parametric and non-parametric statistical tools were used to prepare a meaningful conclusion from the collected data. Two sets of SPSS files were created. The first set contained the responses from the librarian and the second set contained the responses by library users. Percentage values of the survey materials are introduced to analyze and discuss.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

Developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) have a profound impact on every sphere of academic activity. Library and information management is not an exception to this. Business and management libraries have so far not adapted the innovations of the Internet and networking to the fullest extent. Earlier, card catalogue was called as the “Mirror to the Library”. Now in this age of the Internet, it is the library portal that is being called as the “Mirror of the Library”. A library portal reflects the strengths and weaknesses of the libraries very effectively. They are also the tools through which libraries are trying to reach out to the tech-savvy users.
Libraries should make consistent efforts to provide web-based services to their users.

The main task of a library is to collect, store and distribute the reading materials keeping in view the user requirements. The efficiency of a library is judged by the satisfaction of its reader. The library should render services according to the needs of the users. Service is the first and last word of a library. Its reputation depends on its efficiency to render various services to maximum user satisfaction .The user of Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka are becoming aware of various types specialized web-based information services. With the gradual development of our educational system, the number of faculties, students and researcher are increasing proportionately. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka are facing different problems due to the increased enrollment, the number of graduate and undergraduate programs, new comprehensive area of study etc. Academic institution requires up-todate information that is expensive, scarce and difficult to obtain. With the help of web, Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka can meet the information needs of its users. Some problem that is challenges and opportunities has identified from the conducted survey.

Challenge One: Adopt Improved Technology for Digitizing Analog Materials.

User groups particularly in higher education and research are increasingly dependent on e-publication in respond to the research need Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka have to build a comprehensive resource, historical materials now in analog form (e.g., books, journals, laboratory records, sound recordings, manuscripts, photographs) must be converted. Today, the technology for digital conversion is emergent and there are few established standards on which they have to ensure reproduction quality. Unfortunately most of the information professionals are not well verged about the equipment and their applications let alone the standard of digitization. Cost of some essential equipment e.g. high speed scanner, communication switch, storage servers are still beyond the library budget.

Challenge Two: Design Search and Retrieval Tools that Compensate for Abbreviated or Incomplete Cataloging or Descriptive Information.

Providing access to library collections is labor-intensive. In digitization there is a need for more automated support for capturing explicit data structures, generating descriptive elements, re-keying and encoding texts and indexing the full-text. There is an inadequacy of such sort of efficient human resources in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka. As a result, we have to depend on commercial digitization which is not also less expensive.

Challenge Three: Design Tools That Facilitate the Enhancement of Cataloging or Descriptive Information by Incorporating the Contributions of Users.

Among millions of users, there will be those who can enhance the description or cataloging of an item, thus improving the next researcher‟s chance of finding it. Collaborative tools could allow far-flung professional colleagues. Unfortunately due to centralized in-house function and absence of networking in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka the sort of facilities are absent.

Challenge Four: Addressing Legal Issues of Intellectual Property

A key element for providing web-based information services from libraries is recognition and protection of legal rights such as copyright, publicity, privacy, matters of obscenity, defamation intellectual property protection as well as less legalistic but serious concerns associated with the ethics of sharing or providing access to digital contents. This is often in conflict with the duties of libraries and archives entrusted with care and management.

Challenge Five: Develop Approaches that Can Present Heterogeneous Resources in a Coherent Way.

Web-based information system provides a wide variety of contents that are heterogeneous in terms of original format, digital format and resolution, level of descriptive information and access support. Accumulation and repackaging of these diversified formats in digital library system is really a challenging job due to the emerging technologies. The current scenario of digitization program in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka prevail that institutions basically include in-house publications, research reports, old publications and in most cases excludes articles, pamphlets, personal papers, legislative documents, prints, architectural drawings, photographs, maps, sheet music, sound recordings, and movies etc. Thus the challenges will occur with the policy decisions to include diversified content and evolution of diverse technologies of digitization.

Challenge Six: Make the Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka Useful to Different Communities of Users and for Different Purposes.

Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka should be open for authorized users but must be user friendly and respond to multi-faceted query. It indicates the design challenges that encompass user customization of interface, strong vocabulary with efferent mapping etc. Most of the digital preservation initiatives in the country are based on package programs and allow a little for customization.

Challenge Seven: Provide More Efficient and More Flexible Tools for Transforming Digital Content to Suit the Needs of End-users.

Today many digital objects are hard to transform system to system and fly over the network and Internet. That is why digital libraries are represented in multiple forms or versions. The multiple forms exist to serve varieties of users, function as archival masters, and reduce download time and transmission loads on networks.

Challenge Eight: Weak ICT Infrastructure

ICT infrastructure of a country is directly related to the communication systems. With the intent to enhance connectivity emphasis should be given on the establishment of infrastructures to “connect the unconnected” More importance may be given on laying more optical fiber to reach the marginal people of the country particularly the rural areas. Wireless broadband Internet services remain virtually non-existence in the country.

Challenge Nine: Electricity Failure

Electricity or power failure is directly related to the ICT infrastructure. We dare to discuss the issue as separate heading because overcoming the electricity crisis is one of the most challenging jobs of the government in the recent times. Bangladesh is facing huge load shedding of electricity. Bangladesh‟s installed electric generation capacity was 4.7 GW in 2009; only three-fourth of which is considered to be „available‟. The government has failed to add new power plants over the last decade against the increasing demand of electricity. Now almost all parts of Dhaka have at least four to five hours load shedding of electricity everyday let alone the other parts of the country.

Challenge Ten: Skilled Manpower

Skilled manpower is one of the prerequisite of the successful implementation of digitization and digital information system. Besides traditional librarianship, digital preservation systems and services requires some basic working knowledge from the professionals such a scanning, OCR (Optical Character Recognition), Online procurement and use of e-books and e-journals, maintaining bibliographical and full text databases, searching and retrieval, web design and hosting, etc. Unfortunately working knowledge regarding ICT based library systems among the practicing librarians and supporting staff is still below the expected level. The major part of the information workers in the country seldom has practical ideas on digitations and digital librarianship. So, switching the traditional librarians to digital librarians is one of the key challenges toward digitization in our country. The information professionals and their higher authority should recognize this need and take necessary action for refresher training. In this case they can consult with persons or institutions that have the dual expertise (Librarianship and ICT).

5.2 Conclusion

Web-based library services will become more widespread and sophisticated as the web becomes common place throughout the entire world. Librarians should be expert in holding the hands of the users who are moving towards a new communication paradigm shift from face to face human contact to human machine interaction, from paper to electronic delivery, from text centered mode to multimedia and from physical presence to virtual presence. Library professionals must use web-based information services in an innovative manner and address the information requirements of the techno-savvy users (Tripathi and Kumar, 2010). Despite these changes in communication technology, the reference interview will remain at the heart of the reference transaction. To meet these challenges the librarians may play a leadership role in providing better web-based library services to their current techno savvy users. The findings from this study show that Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka is yet to exploit the full potential of the web. In fact, by looking at what other libraries have done, librarians can discover new ideas and learn how to develop and implement such web-based library services, for example, instant messaging reference services, weblogs, and wikis represent the new ultimate level of power for web-based library services.

In web based environment, role of library and information professionals have changed altogether, their role is not just as custodian of books but to teach the students how to use the existing resources, frequently organizing workshops, book talks, debates, develop web based contents and provide web based service to its client. Library professionals cannot ignore the changes in the field of ICT and redefining as well as reengineering the library and information services is the need of the hour. Information professionals must change the way of managing documents with latest tools and technologies. Professionals must have competencies to create web pages, how to build up institutional repository. Library staff has to give instruction, training to users to promote optimum use of information sources. In the digital environment, the information seeking pattern of the faculty members and students has changed and through web based library and information services-Institutional Repository, Knowledge Gateway, WebOPAC and other web based services in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka provide users about latest updates at their desktop. The survey results reveal that majority of the faculty members are aware about the e-resources, most of them desired training to use the available resources through workshop and lecture methods. It is the right time for library professional to come forward firmly and convert the traditional library into teaching library providing organized training to use e-resources to Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka users.

5.3 Recommendations

The survey and the subsequent analysis of the data and the findings of the study have enabled the researchers to provide some practical suggestions for improving the webbased library services expected from study university libraries as given here under:

  1. Professional and technically qualified staffs need to be increased for developing web-based library services.
  2. Digital library portal can be created with Library 2.0 or Library 3.0.
  3. Outsourcing the present library services need to develop as web-based library services.
  4. Proper training for staff in web technology and digital literacy need to provide to develop new web-based library services.
  5. Providing table of contents of each book with its web catalogue; and user awareness programs are needed for web-based library services.
  6. Developing web forms for reference queries, to suggest a document and journal to library, circulation queries, and request of article (s) by e-mail.
  7. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka are faced with various challenges of offering quality web-based library services to both generation X students and faculty. There is an urgent need for web-based library committee in Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka to strengthen webbased library services.
  8. Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka must continually develop effective web-based information literacy programs to provide a high degree of interactivity and flexibility to enhance the quality of web-based library services they offer.
  9. There is an urgent need to develop dynamic library websites, apply semantic technologies and ontologies. Ontology try to resolve the problem of ambiguity in natural language and the problems that arise due to the use of transmission meanings, analogy, comparison or metaphor (Toleva, 2010).
  10. Users today are accustomed to the dynamic and interactive nature of the web, as well as social networking tools. Many of them use web tools to find the information they need (Wang, 2009). So, more RSS feeds, library wikis, instant messaging reference services, virtual library tours, online library and floor maps, discussion forums and listservs, multi-language support content to regional and international users, and increase more terminals for access the new power for web-based library services.
  11. The major problem facing by the study libraries during study period is an acute shortage of professional and technical staff (lying vacant). So it is recommended that Prof Kenneth Dike Library, Awka must recruit professionals with practical knowledge of web technologies in libraries for developing and implementing new web based library services.
  12. The study shows that internet surfing is most important for user in computer centre. So that the lab should be well equipped with enough numbers of computer.
  13. Staff of the computer centre should be well trained. Time duration of using ICT activity should be increased.
  14. Proper ICT training should be given to the library professionals of the library to improve the ICT skill of the professionals.
  15. Seminar and conferences on ICT and web-based information services should be held at least once in a year to create awareness among the people.
  16. Job of the library professionals should be rotated and every professional should be given the chance to work with ICT in library.
  17. In digital era library should be well equipped that all the functions can run smoothly and user can get used all enriched resources of the library.
  18. More online journals should be incorporated. Training and knowledge must include to spreading of awareness of students as well as faculties.

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