Production And Quality Evaluation Of Banana (Musa Sapientum) Wine

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology


Juice was extracted from banana (Musa sapientum) pulp with the addition of lemon juice and was inoculated with Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and held at 30 for seven days. The result of the yeast count increases at 48hr, and at 96hr the yeast count decreased gradually. It ranges from 4.9×107 cfu/ml at 0hr, 5.1×107 at the 48hr and 4.8×107 cfu/ml at 168hr. The pH of the Banana wine produced at the end of fermentation decreased (2.85) while the titrable acidity of the Banana wine produced increased. The total dissolved solids, total suspended solids decreased with increasing length of fermentation of juice. The alcohol content of the wine increased with 14%. The result obtained from the sensory evaluation by ten panelist shows overall acceptance of the wine produced.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Dedication
  • Certification
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Objective of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 History of Wine making
  • 2.2 Wines of African Origin
  • 2.3 Classification of Wine
  • 2.4 Uses of Wine
  • 2.5 Banana Fruit
  • 2.6 Wine Production
  • 2.6.1 Juice (must) Preparation
  • 2.6.2 Fermentation
  • 2.6.3 Aging
  • 2.6.4 Clarification
  • 2.6.5 Packaging/Bottling
  • 2.7 Quality Evaluation of Wine
  • 2.7.1 Clarity/Appearance
  • 2.7.2 Odor/Smell
  • 2.7.3 Taste
  • 2.7.4 Color

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Preparation of Juice
  • 3.2.2 Banana Wine Fermentation
  • 3.2.3 Analytical Assay
  • pH Determination
  • Specific Gravity
  • Total Dissolved Solids
  • Total Suspended Solids
  • Titrable Acidity
  • Alcohol Content
  • 3.2.4 Sensory Evaluation

Chapter Four

4.0 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Recommendation, Conclusion.

  • References
  • Appendix

List Of Tables

  • Table 1: Colony counts of yeast cells during Banana musts fermentation (cfu/ml).
  • Table 2: pH of the fermenting Banana wine
  • Table 3: Titrable acidity of the fermenting Banana wine (g/100ml)
  • Table 4: Total dissolved solids of fermenting Banana wine (ppm).
  • Table 5: Total suspended solids of fermenting Banana wine (ppm).
  • Table 6: Alcohol content of the fermenting Banana wine (%)
  • Table 7: Sensory Evaluation of the fermenting must

List Of Figures

  • FIGURE 1: Flow Chart for Banana Wine Production.
  • FIGURE 2: Banana Wine after Fermentation

Chapter One


Wine is a product of alcoholic fermentation by yeast of the juice of ripe grapes or any fruit with a good proportion of sugar (Brook and Madigan, 2003; Okafor, 2007). Wine is one of the most recognizable high value added products from fruits. It can also be used as a substrate for the manufacture of vinegar, a by-product of wine manufacture.

Wine manufacture is challenging in which marketable product can be obtained, but the processes involved in its production are relatively straight forward (Amerine et al.1980).

Highly acceptable wines can be made from practically all fruits. Wine can be fermented with yeast that occurs naturally in grape and in other countries where grape is not produced, emphasis is usually placed on other fruits for wine making. There are some soft fruits from both temperate and tropical regions whose pigment stability and flavor profiles match those of any wine from grapes, but suffer from the lack of intensive research and development given to grape wine.

Reports on tropical fruit wines have been mainly on exotic species such as banana, pineapple, citrus, mango, pawpaw, apple, strawberries e.t.c (Maldonado et al. 1975). Wine represents a safe and healthful beverage; it also provides calories and vitamins. During period when life was often strenuous, it offered relaxation and relief from pains.

Bananas (Musa sapientum) are an important staple starchy food in Nigeria. It is a seasonal and highly perishable fruit, which can be available all year round. The large quantity of bananas and plantains provides the potential for industrial use (FAO 2003). In addition, any application to produce a marketable, value-added product will improve banana farming economies and eliminate the large environmental problem presented by banana waste. Banana could then compete in the market, either as banana juice or as mixtures with other juices because of its flavor and aroma (Lee et al. 2006).

Bananas has a lot of nutritional benefits, thus demands in the market are high. They are highly recommended by doctors for patients whose potassium is low, because of its impressive potassium content. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart beat and blood pressure, countering bad effects of sodium. Banana is considered as an important food to boost the health of malnourished children, it contains good amount of soluble dietary fiber that helps normal bowel movements; thereby reducing constipation problems. Medicinal uses of banana have positive contribution towards successful treatment of anemia, heartburn, temperature control, ulcer, overweight e.t.c.

Banana juice can also be applied to wine production; however, banana juice is turbid, gray in color, very viscous, tends to settle during storage and, therefore must be clarified prior to commercialization (Lee et al.2006). The turbidity and viscosity of banana wine are caused mainly by the polysaccharides in banana juice such as pectin and starch and therefore make the clarification process harder. Application of pectinase and -amylases that affect the quality of wine is important for improving the process of banana wine production.

Objective Of The Study

  1. To produce wine from banana wine
  2. To evaluate the qualities of the wine
  3. To carry out or monitor yeast count during fermentation.

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation.


The result of the yeast count increases at 48hr, and at 96hr the yeast count decreased gradually. It ranges from 4.9×107 cfu/ml at 0hr, 5.1×107 at the 48hr and 4.8×107 cfu/ml at 168hr, this observation is in contrast with that recorded by Usher and Chandra (1996) who reported increase in the total yeast count throughout the fermentation of Kunutsamia’ due to the fact that the fermentation is not an alcoholic one.

Appearance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 96hr and above during fermentation period agrees with the result of Peppler (1976) who observed that S. cerevisiae could strive under low pH. The result of the pH values in the experiment shows progressive decrease, this is recorded as 2.85 at 168hr for the wines produced. This shows that the wine became more acidic with the period of fermentation. The drop in pH also records the utilization of the sugar present in the must for growth. This observation is similar to that reported by Amerine et al., (1980) and that of Obisanya et al., (1987) during the fermentation of mango juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Results obtain in the study records that the alcohol content and titratable acidity increases with the period of fermentation. The result of the titratable acidity is recorded as 1.33g/100ml at 0hr to 1.60g/100ml at 168hr. The result of alcohol content of 11% at 0hr to 14% at 168hr was recorded. This result is found to conform to that of Sanni (1989) who observed gradual increase in the titratable acidity and the alcohol content in the fermentation of plantain.

The total dissolved solids and total suspended solids decrease as the fermentation period increase. In the fermenter, the result is recorded for total dissolved solids as 2.5x104at 0hr to 5.0×103 at 168hr and for total suspended solids as 1.33×105 at 0hr to 2.2×104 at 168hr. This observation is similar to that of Amerine et al., (1980), they attributed this to the fact that a large percentage of the total colloids (soluble materials) were irreversibly precipitated by fermentation and fed upon by the fermenting yeast cells.

The result of the sensory evaluation of the wine sample produced show that the wine produced is clear with slightly creamy color. The wine sample produced has a sharp sour taste with strong alcoholic odor/aroma. In texture, the wine produced was completely watery at the end of fermentation. This result is similar to that recorded by Amerine et al., (1980) that as fermentation rate proceeded, gas was formed and this rose through the liquid then during active fermentation, forth or foam is formed on the surface. The gas carries the cells through the fermenting must cause it to be cloudy and as a result, a strong odor of alcoholic fermentation developed.

The result of the banana wine produced by the fermenting with dried yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) shows high rate of alcoholic production at the end of 168hr. This result is similar to the observation reported by Mestre and Mostre (1980) who recorded that pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces more ethanol and give a faster fermentation than the native yeast.


In conclusion, banana wine is very easy to produce and could then compete in the market with other wines because of its flavor and aroma. It has a lot of nutritional benefits, thus demands in the market are high and therefore help create job opportunities.


From the result of the work carried out, I recommend that producing wine from banana will generally satisfy medical needs of people especially elders because fresh Banana fruit has a lot of nutritional and medicinal qualities and, banana wine and all other wines should be drunk moderately.

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