Microbial Profile Of Suya Meat
Ten (10) samples of suya meat in Enugu were collected randomly and analyzed microbiologically and the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus (35%)Escherichia coli (15%) Streptococcus species (15%) Pseudomanas (35%) . The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. The total viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.9x 3.8x cfu/g whereas, total coliform count ranged 1.1x-3.0x cfu/g on MacConkey and Nutrient agar respectively. The result revealed that the hygienic condition of the meat have fallen below acceptable standard for human consumption.
List Of Tables
- TABLE 1: Total viable and coliform counts (〖10〗^(0cfu/g))
- TABLE 2: Characterization /identification of Isolate
- TABLE 3: Frequency of occurrence of isolates
Table Of Contents
- Table of contents
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Aim and Objectives
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Suya meat
- 2.2 Preparation of suya
- 2.3 Preparation of meat
- 2.4 Meat spoilage
- 2.5 Factors that affect the growth of microorganisms in meat
- 2.5.1 Temperature
- 2.5.2 pH
- 2.5.3. Water availability
- 2.5.4 Nutrients
3.0 Materials and Methods
- 3.1 List of reagents
- 3.2 List of glassware
- 3.3 Preparation of media
- 3.4 Sample collection
- 3.5 Preparations of samples
- 3.6 Determination of total viable counts
- 3.7 Characterization and Identification of Isolates
- 3.7.1 Gram reaction
- 3.7.2 Motility test
- 3.7.3 Catalase test
- 3.7.4 Coagulase test
- 3.7.5 Oxidase test
- 3.7.6 Urease test
- 3.7.7 Citrate test
- 3.7.8 Vogues Proskauer test
- 3.7.9 Indole test
- 3.7.10 Carbohydrate fermentation test
- 3.7.11 Methyl red test
5.0 Discussion, Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations.
- 5.1 Discussion
- 5.2 Summary and Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Meat is the flesh of animals which serves as food; it is obtained from sheep, cattle, goat and swine (Hamman, 1997). Meat is a major source of protein and have valuable qualities of vitamins for most people in many parts of the world, thus they are essential for the growth, repair and maintenance of body cells which is necessary for our everyday activities.
Meat could be traced back to human history, then when primitive men use raw flesh of dead animals, but as man developed, he domesticated as well as wild animals. Beef have been the major supply of meat in Nigeria as a result of extensive and semi-intensive cattle production system in Nigeria by Fulani and Hausa people of the northern Nigeria. (Umoh, 2004).
Suya meat is a boneless lean meat of mutton, beef, goat or chicken meat staked on sticks, coated with its sauces, oiled and then roasted over wood using a fire from charcoal. It is a popular, traditionally processed meat product that is served hot and sold along streets, at clubs, picnics centers, and restaurants and within institutions. Suya meat is one of the intermediate moisture products that are easy to prepare and highly relish which is a mass consuming fast food and its preparation and sales are usually not done with strict hygiene condition because they are still done locally.
Due to the chemical composition and characteristic, meat are highly perishable food which provides excellent source of growth of many hazardous microorganisms that can cause infection in human and also lead to meat spoilage and economic loss. The most important bacteria meat spoilage is caused by lactic acid bacteria which is physiologically related group of fastidious and ubiquitous gram-positive organisms, these includes many species such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus.
Since meat has a high nutritive value, microorganisms could easily grow on it. The possible sources of contamination are through slaughtering of sick animals, washing the meat with dirty water, handling by butchers, contamination by flies, processing close to sewage or refuse dumps environment, spices, transportation and use of contaminated equipment such as knife and other utensils. (Igyor and Uma, 2005).
The slaughtering process affords extensive contamination of sterile tissue with gram-negative enteric bacteria from animal intestine including Salmonella specieand Escherichia coli as well as contaminant such as gram-positive Lactic cocciassociated with humans, animals and the environment. Enterococci and Clostridiahave been isolated from lymph node of red meat animals (Lawries, 2000, Alexanderet. al. 1998).
Microorganisms grow on meat causing visual, textural and organoleptic changes when they release metabolite (Jackson et. al. 2001). The smoke produced as a number of effects including preservative effect resulting from the deposition of organic compounds all presents in the smoked product (Suya meat). (Dineenet.al.1999). A preservative effect is also induced by the surface drying that occurs to the extent of 30% total weight loss in hot smoked product. Antioxidant effect is produced by the phenolic deposite unto the product.
The microbial load in meat and meat product increases as long as growth conditions are favorable. The factor influencing microbial growth includes acidity pH, temperature, water activity, gaseous requirement, nutrient and competition of microbes for the nutrient. Controlling these factors implies maintaining long shelf life of meat and meat product but proper preservation of meat could be achieved by the combination of two or more preservation method which includes drying, salting and high temperature (Nester e, al 2001).
1.2 Aims And Objectives
This work is aimed at determining the microbial quality of suya meat sold in Enugu and has the following objectives:
- To isolate, characterize and identify microbial species associated with Suya meat.
- To establish the public health implication of consumption of Suya meat.
- To offer useful information where necessary to the consuming public.
5.0 Discussion, Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations.
Meat basically contains all the nutrients necessary for microbial growth and metabolism, making it susceptible to microbial contamination. In view of the material quality of meat and meat products must be ascertained to ensure safety from infection after consumption of such products and to promote quality assurance.
Laboratory analysis carried out on suya meat was collected randomly suya vendors in Enugu, Enugu state. Some microorganisms were isolated, in which the result was in consonance with the literature of Chukwura and Majekwu(2002) which stated microbiological analysis of meat samples in Awka urban Anambra state, indicated contaminated of meat sample with various bacteria species including Staphylococcus aureus, and some enteric bacteria Gilbert Harrison(2001)also affirm that meat contains certain amount of salt by so permit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus whereas, the presence of some members of the enteric bacteriacea family is due to contamination from intestine slaughtered animals.
Four organisms were isolated from the suya sample in view of the of the unhygienic condition of meat handling in Nigeria, the organisms isolated could always be suspected in connection with meat contamination and spoilage. The organisms include Staphylococcus specie, Streptococcus specie, Escherichia coli Pseudomonas specie.
The presence of Staphylococcus specie affirms the cross contamination through processing (Gilbert and Harisson 2001).Since it is normal flora of the skin. Raw meat is usually carried on the body by butcher in Nigeria due to lack of education (Dada et.al; 1993). Confirmed that coliform often results from the water used for washing the meat which of course is always contaminated.
Also presence of Escherichia coli probably may arose from the use of non –portable water during washing of raw meat (Umor,2004).
The meat also showed presence of pseudomonas aeruginosa, which usually occurs around soil, vegetation and even surface (Field, 2002).
On the whole, the critical points of contamination of suya meat are roasting, handling and reheating. So control contamination of contamination can be achieved if aseptic techniques of suya preparation process are observed.
5.2 Summary And Conclusion
Suya meat constitutes a great source of protein which is needed for body building and repair of worn out tissue in human. Advances in the microbial quality of suya meat is very important and adequate steps must be taken to prevent contamination and spoilage by microorganisms.
The organisms isolated from the suya meat indicate that the standards of preparation and preservation have not improved much over the years and facilities used for preparation are not sterile. Aseptic techniques are not adequately employed in the meat industries as so to reduce microbial load of meat and its products for safety consumption by consumers and thus prevent food-borne diseases or infections.
Quality control unit should established in meat processing industries in Nigeria and Hazard Critical Control Point ( HACCP) concept should be applicable to the processing and renderings.
Microbial Profile Of Suya Meat
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