Awareness And Use Of Electronic Resources In University Libraries By Undergraduate Student In Library And Information Science


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Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science


Abstract


The awareness of electronic information resources enhances undergraduate students academic performance by providing various information needed for research. The availability of electronic information resources increases access and use of information materials which will be of immense benefit to undergraduate students in their research work.

The aim of this study is to investigate Awareness and use of electronic resources in university libraries by undergraduate student in library and information Science in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.The survey research design was adopted for the research.The population of the study was 160 undergraduate students from 18 universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States. Census was used to include all the 160 undergraduate students that participated in the study.

A self-structured questionnaire titled “Awareness, Use of Electronic Information Resources and Academic performance questionnaire” was used to collect data. Cronbach’s alpha reliability test was used to validate the instrument with value ranging from 0.7 to 0.81. 89.4% (143) was the return rate of the questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency count, tables, percentages, standard deviation and means) for research questions while inferential statistics ( Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA) were used for the hypotheses.

There was no significant relationship between electronic information resources awareness and academic performance of undergraduate students in the study locale (r = -0.13, N = 143, P = 0.117). The study showed no significant relationship between electronic information resources use and academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States (r = -0.05, N = 143, P = 0.561).

The combination of awareness and use of electronic information resources did not significantly influence academic performance of undergraduate students in the universities (R = .13, F 2140 = 1.30, P >0.05). Findings also revealed that there was high level of awareness of electronic information resources and that undergraduate students frequently used AGORA, JSTOR, HINARI, E-Library, TEAL, EBSCOHOST, OARE, E-Directory and Science Direct E-Journal.

This study concluded that most undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States have access to electronic information resources but they do not maximize these resources for their research work. Hence this study recommended that undergraduate students’ routine task should be minimized so that they can have time to embark on research activities using the electronic information resources.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Content Page
  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review Of Literature

  • 2.1 Academic performance of Undergraduate students
  • 2.1.1 Publication Performance of Undergraduate students in the Universities
  • 2.2 The Concept of Electronic Information Resources
  • 2.2.1 Types of Electronic Information Resources
  • 2.3 Awareness of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate students
  • 2.4 Use of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate students
  • 2.5 Awareness of Electronic Information Resources and Academic performance of Undergraduate students
  • 2.6 Use of Electronic Information Resources and Academic performance of Undergraduate students
  • 2.7 Challenges of Academic performance of Undergraduate students in Universities Using Electronic Information Resources
  • 2.8 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.8.1 Information Utilization Theory
  • 2.8.1.1 Relevance of this Theory to the Study
  • 2.8.2 Campbell Theory of Job Performance
  • 2.8.2.1 Relevance of this Theory to the Study
  • 2.8.3 McClelland’s Needs Theory
  • 2.8.3.1 Relevance of this Theory to the Study

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument
  • 3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis, Results And Discussion Of Findings

  • 4.1 Demographic Information of Respondents
  • 4.2 Research Questions
  • 4.3 Hypotheses
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
  • 5.5 Limitation of the Study
  • 5.7 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Research output of librarians is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement. It has also been reported that the quality of academic performance by academics in any university system depends largely on the quality and quantity of information resources at their disposal (Popoola, 2008). Powell (1997) maintains that research and publication help individuals to think critically and analytically. Undergraduate students in academic libraries are considered as academic staff, so engaging in research has become an expected activity on their part. Despite the benefits of academic performance to undergraduate students, they do not conduct enough research and publication.

According to Reitz (2005) & Powell et al (2002) research is a systematic painstaking investigation of a topic or in a field of study often employing technique of hypotheses and experimentation, undertaken by a person intent on revealing new facts, theories or principles or determining skill and identification of research problems. Research is a vital and indispensable activity in universities and research institutions. It has become essential for a university’s prestige as well as the career of undergraduate students.

Research provides a good platform for undergraduate students to become successful academics. This is because research develops their knowledge and reinforces the skills needed for effective knowledge transfer. It also inspires undergraduate students towards hard work, fills the gaps of previous researches, and creates an opportunity for future research. According to Rashid (2001), research is conscious effortto collect, verify, and analyze information. Research is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining new knowledge. Research occupies a critical role in promoting the prosperity of a nation and its citizens’ well-being. Academic performance and research productivity are often used interchangeably. According to Hoffman et al. (2014), independent of research requirements for tenure or promotion, an increasing emphasis on a culture of assessment and evidence-based undergraduate studentship has contributed to greater need for undergraduate students to conduct research.

Information Communication Technology has brought about innovation in undergraduate studentship where access to information is made possible to library users beyond the physical boundary of the university library. According to Pullinger (1999), the academic information environment has changed for both undergraduate students and patrons, since most of the information sources are now available and as well accessible in electronic format, the electronic information resources have unprecedented contribution on library collections.

Electronic Information Resources refer to information bearing materials that provide access to users in a digital or in an electronic format. Electronic information resources also have been viewed by Haridasan and Khan (2009) as a resource in which information is stored electronically and accessed through electronic systems and networks. Electronic information resources have many functions and benefits which can be of immense use to undergraduate students’. Once a user is connected to the Internet such user can link up with any part of the world for whatever purpose the user has in mind, (Osunrinde, Adekiya and Adyemo, 2002). Okiki and Asiru (2011) view electronic resources as the product of information communication technologies which are found relevant to aid undergraduate students’ performance and research process in the universities.

The awareness and use of electronic information resources is very important as to the academic performance of undergraduate students in universities, because it is perceived that when these resources are accessible, the use will be easy and may contribute to the academic performance and the development of the library at large. Hence, it appears that when electronic information resources are accessible, it may hamper the academic performance of undergraduate students. This reason informed the need to investigate the awareness and use of electronic information resources on academic performance of undergraduate students in universities. The awareness and use of e-resources is dependent on the functionality of information communication technology tools and interest within the library. Oduwole and Akpati (2003) investigate the awareness and retrieval of electronic information resources at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The study revealed that all members of the university community have access toelectronic information resources and it was easy to use and were satisfied with their academic performances.

Use of electronic information resources according to Nawe and Kiondo (2005) the study report that research quality had improved significantly with the use of electronic information resources. Results of the study also revealed that the quality of teaching and learning had improved significantly as a result of information and communication technology (ICT) application in library operation. Foster et al. (2008) argue that inadequate access and use of electronic resources affect the publication performances of Nigerian universities in international journals is reportedly low, and publication performance is a major indicator of productivity; this implies that academic staff in Nigerian universities are not internationally productive.

Internet resources such as online databases, e-books, and e-journals were among the EIRs used for academic purposes. Other resources found to be used were CD-ROMs and OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue). Generally, literature has shown that there is a positive relationship between the use of electronic information resources and improvement in the quality and quantity of academic performance. Nawe and Kiondo (2005) in their study report that research quality had improved significantly with the use of electronic information resources. Results of the study also revealed that the quality of teaching and learning had improved significantly as a result of information and communication technology (ICT) application in library operation.

The awareness and use of the electronic information resources will be of immense benefit to undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun State, Nigeria. Electronic information resources will assist them to produce or publish a good academic performance which can be added to existing knowledge. Electronic information resources provide access and use according to various literature reviews and these can broaden the mind of undergraduate students when embarking on research which will lead to quality research or performance. The awareness of electronic information resources enhances undergraduate students academic performance by providing various information needed for research. It also increases access and use of information materials that will be of immense benefit to undergraduate students in their research work.

Electronic information resources are in digitized format which requires access to computers and internet connection. Awareness and use of these resources is influenced by various factors. However, because of the flexibility of electronic information resources, they have added advantage over print materials in research conduction. Thus, the ease with which electronic information resources is accessed and used to obtain needed information significantly influence the degree of the use of these materials by undergraduate students and this is turn has great impact on the academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.

Despite the importance of and advantages offered by electronic information resources (EIRs) studies have identified a number of problems associated with awareness and use of electronic information resources, these problems range from lack of or inadequate resources, mainly computers, poor internet connectivity, inappropriate usage of electronic information resources lack of appropriate skills in research among undergraduate students. In spite of the advantages offered by electronic information resources, not much have been explored by undergraduate students in their academic performance on this subject matter, hence the need for their study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Academic performance contributes towards image building of universities as well as ranking. It seems likely that undergraduate students record low academic performance. This low academic performance could be undergraduate students’ inability to access electronic information resources or could it be that undergraduate students are inadequately using these electronic information resources on their academic performance.

Moreover, previous work on awareness and use of electronic information resources may not have focused on the possible influence which awareness and use of electronic information resources could have on academic performance of undergraduate students in the study locale. Therefore, this study sought to investigate awareness and use of electronic information resources as correlates of academic performance of undergraduate students in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States universities.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the Awareness and use of electronic resources in university libraries by undergraduate student in library and information Sciencein universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Identify the level of electronic information resources that are available in the universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States;
  2. Ascertain the level of awareness of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in the universities under study;
  3. Find out the level of electronic information resources use by undergraduate students in the area of study;
  4. Find out the academic performance of undergraduate students in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States universities;
  5. Examine the relationship between awareness of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students in the study locale;
  6. Determine the relationship between the use of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students in the study locale;.
  7. Determine the combined effect of awareness and use of electronic information resources on academic performance of undergraduate students in the universities under study and
  8. Identify the challenges of academic performance of undergraduate students in the under studied universities.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to achieve the above objectives of the study, the following research questions were used to garner data for the research:

  1. To what level are electronic information resources available for use by undergraduate students in universities under study?
  2. To what extent are electronic information resources accessible to undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States?
  3. What is the level of use of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States?
  4. What is the academic performance of undergraduate students in universities under study?
  5. What are the challenges of academic performance among undergraduate students in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide this study, and were be tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significant correlation between awareness of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.

H02: There is no significant correlation between the use of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.

H03: There is no significant effect of awareness and use of electronic information resources on academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study evaluated awareness and use of electronic information resources on academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States within the period of (2010 – 2015) to enable the research determine the academic performance of undergraduate students during this period. The study covered three states in South-West geopolitical zone namely; Ekiti, Ondo and Osun. There are eighteen (18) universities in the three states and the breakdowns are as follows: 3 Federal universities, 5 State universities and 10 private universities.


1.7 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would help undergraduate students in academic institution improve their academic performance through awareness and use of electronic information resources. The finding of this study would be of immense assistance to all undergraduate students in universities to know the importance of electronic information resources use that wouldenhance their academic performance. The research findings of this study would help undergraduate students, policy implementation, the government and management board of the universities and libraries who are involved in the research work to explore information on electronic information resources. Furthermore, findings and recommendations of this study would add to the existing knowledge in the field of Information Resources Management and related discipline in Information Management.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Information Resources:

They are devices which enhance the sharing of ideas; it could be manually or electronically. It can also be referred to as information carriers e.g. books, journals, magazines etc.

Electronic Information Resources:

Refers to the computer mediated information resources in electronic form that are available for use among undergraduate students in universities.

Awareness of Electronic Information Resources:

It is the ability to get, locate or obtain electronic information resource with ease in the conduct of research. Thus, awareness is considered in the study as a process in which undergraduate students can easily locate electronic information resources to aid research productivity.

Use of Electronic Information Resources:

Refers to purpose for which these resources are used by undergraduate students. It is also the ability to use electronic information resources in the conduct of research.

Undergraduate Students:

They are professionally trained persons responsible for managing, organising, evaluating and disseminating information, providing support to members of an academic community including students, researchers and lecturers.

Academic Performance:

Total productivity in term of research report of undergraduate students within the period of 2010 – 2015. It is the outcome of publication of undergraduate students with first degree BLS/BLIS, Bachelors MLS/MLIS and Ph.D in the field of undergraduate studentship. It also include their own productivity in terms of research publication, number of seminars paper presented, number of workshops conducted, conferences and training in emerging technology.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. The finding of this research significantly summarizes the precise contributions of this study to knowledge as well as the suggestions for further studies.


5.1 Summary

This study was aimed at finding out if awareness and use of electronic information resources were correlates of academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the types of electronic information resources that are available in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States, ascertain the level of awareness of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in the universities, find out the extent of electronic information resources used by undergraduate students, find out the nature and quantity of academic performance of undergraduate students, examine the relationship between awareness of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students, determine the relationship between the use of electronic information resources and academic performance of undergraduate students, determine the combined effect of awareness and use of electronic information resources on academic performance of undergraduate students in the universities under study, identify the challenges of academic performance of undergraduate students in the under studied universities. In line with these objectives, five research questions and three hypotheses were formulated.

The research survey design was used. The population consisted of 160 undergraduate students in 18 universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire titled‘Awareness and Use of Electronic Information Resources and Academic performance of Undergraduate students’ in universities (EKODOSS). Out of 160 copies of questionnaires dispatched, the return rate of questionnaire was 89.4%. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, Pearson Moment Correlation and ANOVA. Major findings of the study are outlined thus:

  1. Electronic information resources such as AGORA, EBSCOHOST, JSTORBOONE,HINARI, TEAL, E-Library, OARE, E-Directory, Science Direct E-Journal, (NVL-NUC) and ONLINE LIBRARY SERVICES were available in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.
  2. There was high level of awareness electronic information resources.
  3. The electronic information resources frequently used in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States include AGORA, JSTOR, HINARI, E-Library,TEAL, EBSCOHOST, OARE, E-Directory and Science Direct E-Journal.
  4. Undergraduate students published mostly on Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Co-authored Textbooks and Conference/Seminar/Workshop Papers.
  5. Among many factors, the study deduced lack of time due to library routine tasks, low speed of internet services, cost of access to electronic database, frequent request to pay for online subscription, lack of adequate time to search for information and inability to get relevant materials. The major challenges face by undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States is lack of time due to library routine tasks.
  6. There is no significant relationship between electronic information resources awareness and academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.
  7. There is no significant relationship between electronic information resources use and academic performance of undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States. This is because they do not use it for publications.
  8. Lastly, a combination of awareness and use of electronic information resources do not significantly influence academic performance in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.

5.2 Conclusion

In the recent knowledge–based society, the need for universal access and use of electronic information resources is imperative for undergraduate students to redefine their stand in terms of academic performance. It is obvious from the finding of this study that most undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States have access to electronic information resources but they are not adequately using these resources on their academic performance. In addition to the findings of this study, quite a lot of electronic information resources were made available and frequently used in the three states. In spite of this fact, the study documented some challenges facing undergraduate students in using these resources. As deduced in this study, the undergraduate students have access to electronic information resources and use them for other purposes.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Awareness: undergraduate students in the study area should liaise with university management to provide access to electronic information resources through online subscription of data for browsing, increase in interest bandwidth, constant electricity, paying utilities bills as when due and provision of conducive environment for research work.
  2. Use: undergraduate students in the study locale should make judicious use of electronic information resources that are available in their universities on publications to enhance quality research which lead to academic performance.
  3. Undergraduate students’ routine task should be minimize by the university management, so that they can have time to embark on research activities which will in turn boost universities academic performance.
  4. Undergraduate students in the three states under study should try as much as possible to publish in patent , certified invention and scientific peer-reviewed
  5. International publication on journal should be given more attention and monograph publication should be encouraged by universities under study.
  6. The undergraduate students: the study locale should liaise with the parent body (universities management to provide adequate interest services and facilities for research.
  7. Undergraduate students need to be encouraged by providing the necessary electronic information resources which will improve their academic performance

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge

The study revealed that there is high level of awareness of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States. There is also high level of usage of electronic information resources, however, this is usage of these resources are not on the academic performance of undergraduate students in the study locale. More so, the finding provide a roadmap that will assists the university management to identify the key factors that affect academic performance of undergraduate students in the study area.Also with review of various studies, it was found that awareness and use of electronic information resources do not significantly influence undergraduate students’ academic performance as most of them use the electronic information resources for their library routine task. Empirically, this study provides chance for researcher and undergraduate students to make effective use of electronic information resources in their research activities.


5.5 Limitation of the Study

In the process of conducting this research, the following limitation were encountered. Firstly, the major burdens encountered were in the course of data collection. Most of the respodents were unwilling and on many occasions showed uncooperative attitude in filling out the questionnaire. But after much persuasion, some of them were able to fill out and return the questionnaire. Also, the finding of this research cannot be generalised, because it comprised all undergraduate students in universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States.


5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies

This study was conducted among universities in Ekiti, Ondo and Osun States. The study could be replicated in other states in Nigeria for both (federal, state and private) universities. Further studies could determine the availability and use of electronic information resources on research productivity.


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