Availability And Utilization Of Internet Resources For Information Sourcing Among Library And Information Science Students Of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Award

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Availability And Utilization Of Internet Resources For Information Sourcing Among Library And Information Science Students Of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Award


Abstract


The Internet is described as global connections of computers of various sizes, capacity and functionality. These networks are often referred to as “information superhighway”, where computers are interconnected with the sole purpose of providing resources, services, and information across the globe, thus reducing the entire universe into a “global village”. This study was conducted to investigate the availability and utilization of internet resources for information sourcing among library and information science students of Nnamdi Azikiwe university, Awka. the study targeted population comprising from 100 levels to 400 level students in the department to obtain the relevant data for the study. In all, there were 940 students in the population of study. Out of the 100 (100%) copies of questionnaire distributed to the respondents, a total of 86 (86%) copies were returned duly completed and found usable for this study. The findings based on research question one reveals that, there are different Internet resources available in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries which show most of the Internet resources listed in the options are available in the library, and library website, computer, online database, CD-ROMs and internet are available in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries. Findings also showed that the library computers are the major ways to access Internet information resources and also the techniques used in acquiring the skills to access Internet are through courses offered in Nnamdi Azikiwe university. Based on the major findings and conclusion of this study, it was recommended that the library should make available other types of Internet information resources like internet websites, email services, flash drives, multimedia fax, and other type of Internet information resources to help students in there study and research.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The Internet is described as global connections of computers of various sizes, capacity and functionality. These networks are often referred to as “information superhighway”, where computers are interconnected with the sole purpose of providing resources, services, and information across the globe, thus reducing the entire universe into a “global village”. According to Manda (2005), the Internet is regarded as the largest global connections of computer network, making it the network of networks. The Internet is also known to be an important and major source of information and a medium through which communication, dissemination, and storage of information is facilitated. Similarly, it is perceived as a very powerful mechanism for effective communication having the largest single source of information on a global scale (Maheswarappa & Ebnazar, 2003). Historically, the Internet first came into being in the United State of America in 1969 with the launching of a national computer network known as Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET). Today, the vast network that interconnects millions of computers worldwide provides availability and accessibility to a variety of resources and services. Internet resources (e-resources) are information carrying resources which are made available and accessible to users through the use of computer and similar devices in a networked environment, they include e-books, e-journal, and online databases. Internet services refer to all the Internet facilities that assist in communication and collaboration, they include e-mail, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Bulletin board, Discussion group, chart rooms Newsgroup, Telnet, and Usenet.

Internet resources and services are capable of providing Nigerian researchers and scholars, the enabling environment to overcome the barriers of communication and collaboration and also provide scholars, researchers, individuals and their organization the advantage of presenting their research findings and ideas, in which according to (Worldometers, 2015) Nigeria with a population of 184,608,768 people is number one country in Africa and number eight in the world with 65,675,984 Internet users (Internet World Stats, 2015). Ogunjobi and Fagbami (2012) confirmed that the Internet resources and services enable: lecturers to update their knowledge, prepare up-to-date lecture notes for their students, download free e-books and e-journals, use e-mail for communication and collaboration with colleagues. Through the use of the Internet resources and services, lecturers keep abreast with research and development in their fields of study, bringing them fame, recognition improving their institutional ranking and ensure regular promotions to higher academic positions. Onwubiko (2012) observes that the Internet resources and services provides essential ingredients for enhancing both the research efforts of academics and indeed their level of intellectual development in the global village of knowledge management, from this inference drown, it will be equally understood that the use of the Internet resources and services will help to improve the quality of academic research as well increase lecturers’ level of intellectualism.

Bankole and Oludayo (2012) maintain that Universities globally made a lot of investment on the provision of Internet access because it saves time in the production and utilization of knowledge. It also promotes multi-disciplinary research, fosters cooperation, and facilitates information sharing and exchange of ideas among researchers from various institutions, nations or regions. Imhonopi and Urim (2012) observe that academics from tertiary institutions in developed nations depended on Internet resources and services for teaching and research activities, which makes their research output visible and accessible globally. This is contrary to what is obtainable in developing or un- developed nation like Nigeria.

The need to use the Internet resources and services towards getting current and relevant information for the purpose of academic activities of teaching, learning, research, publication communication, and collaboration activities can be seen from the efforts and initiatives put in place by the Nigerian government through the National Universities Commission (NUC), in the creation of Nigerian Universities Network (NuNet) and subsequently the National Virtual Library Project (NVLP) is a step towards the proper utilization of the Internet resources and services by University lecturers for the enhancement of academic activities.

The growing proliferation of variety of internet information resources (e-resources) and technologies over the last decade has revolutionizing influence on libraries and information centers in Nigeria, their staff, and other patrons. The change is noticeably visible in that today’s libraries, and especially the components of internet information retrieval, present a type of ‘‘culture shock’’ for many users (Tibbo, 1999).A significant transformation has been noticed in collection development policies and practices. Print medium is increasingly giving way to the internet form of materials (Sharma, 2009).internet resources, like CD-ROM, online journals, e-books, OPACs, and the internet, are slowly replacing the importance and usage of print media. The emergence of internet information resources has tremendously transformed information – handling and management in Nigerian academic environments, and University libraries in particular (Ani, Okon E. and Ahiauzu, (2008). Dadzie (2005) writes that internet resources are invaluable research tools that complement the print – based resources in a traditional library setting. According to her others include: access to information remotely due to geographical location or finances, access to more current information, and provision of extensive links to additional resources related contents.

Okiki and Asiru, (2011) defined internet resources as information stored and transmitted in digital, internet or computerized formats such as diskettes, CD-ROM databases, DVDs, online public access catalogues (OPAC), bibliographic and full-text databases, internet journals, scholarly databases, information gateways, e-books, the Internet and internet mails. The use of internet resources has gained prominence in universities across the globe and many academics are availing themselves of the opportunity to exploit these resources to access relevant, current and updated information for diverse purposes.

However, various authors and organizations have defined internet information resources. AACR-2 defined electronic information resources as “a material (data/ program) encoded for manipulation by computerized devices. Thus, material may require the use of a peripheral directly connected to a computerized device (eg CD-ROM) or a connection to a computer network (e.g Internet)”. Similarly, International Coalition of Library Consortia (1998) defines internet resources as “a broad term that encompasses abstracting and indexing services, internet journals and other full text materials, the offering of information aggregators, article delivery services, To Okore (2009) stated that internet information resources includes internet books (e-books), internet journals (e-journal), and indexes, collections of journal articles, reference works, digital collections, databases and websites.

Internet resources can be accessed through remote networks from information providers or locally mounted by a consortium or one of its member libraries. According to IFLA/FAIFE (2007) these are “materials that are computer controlled, including materials that required the use of a peripheral (a CD ROM player) attached to a computer; the items may or may not be used in the interactive mode.” internet resources are defined as being publicly available information resources, which can be accessed through a personal computer. These include commercially produced resources such as bibliographic databases accessed online or through CD-ROM, internet journals, internet books as well as resources that are freely available through the Internet especially to higher education institutions or to the public in general. The internet information resources are defined from different points of view by many organizations and authors. However, for the purpose of the present study the internet resources are considered as those materials that require computer access and may be either locally mounted or accessed remotely through the internet.

On this premise, it can be deduced that EIRs are resource which requires computer access or any internet product that delivers a collection of data, be it text referring to full text bases, internet journals, image collections, other multimedia products and numerical, graphical or time based, as a commercially available title that has been published with an aim to being marketed. These may be delivered on CD ROM, on tape, via internet and so on. And equally internet information resources can be online e-resources, which may include: e-journal (Full text and bibliographic), e- books, on-line Database and web sites, and other internet resources may include: CD ROM, diskettes and other portable computer databases

Unlike print resources which are static, internet information resources are dynamic in nature and require more maintenance in order to ensure effective and efficient accessibility and utilization. Therefore, management of internet information resources involves coordinated effort of selecting, acquiring, organizing, maintaining and providing access to the resources via internet means. internet information resources management involves selection, order, acquisition, budgeting, fund allocation, technical processing, storage, access, and maintenance of the e-resources. It also involves the management of human resources in performing these operations.

At a time of ever increasing demand for information, libraries must keep abreast of developments in information technology and advanced communication to enable them provide services that today’s society both expect and need. It was in recognition of this that Iljon, (1998) observed that the convergence of computing and communication technologies impact significantly on the way in which information resources are created, managed and used; therefore, libraries need to plan and implement systems which will take advantage of this development. Rosenberg, (2005) opined that the changing academic environment and the recognition of the role of internet resources in libraries has brought about a transformation which includes an investment in internet infrastructure and connectivity and internet learning, which calls for new approaches in providing library services to enhance the quality of higher education.

According to International encyclopedia of information science (2003). There is some of confusion over the concept of information resources, mainly as a result of the inclusion of technological resources in concept. Information resources are the procedures, equipment, facilities, software, and data that are designed built, operated, and maintained to collect, record, process, store, retrieve, display, and transmit information.

Mutula and Ojedokun (2008) opined that digital library resources and services are increasingly being implemented by several agencies – government, private sector, and tertiary institutions, etc. because they make research easier for scholars and may ease budgetary constraints associated with the acquisition of print resources. They help to reduce preservation problems or help libraries extend collections into new media.

Ani (2012) observes that the National Virtual Library Project (NVLP) was established to enhance access to the use of Internet resources and services in the Universities across the country. According to Isah (2010) despite, numerous efforts put in place by the federal government of Nigeria, tertiary institutions are yet to seize this opportunity. This may be largely due to inadequate facilities, lack of maintenance and lack of awareness or required skills to make use of the limited facilities.

Academic staff of tertiary institutions are expected to make proper use of the Internet resources for their academic activities because of the vast and up to date information that can be obtained from them, they are also expected to make proper use of Internet services so that they will have effective communication with their colleagues and other researchers around the globe. Observation has shown that academic staff in Nnamdi Azikiwe university are not making proper use of the Internet resources and services in the conduct of their academic activities instead they use the resources and services for non-academic purposes, such as chatting and sharing pictures, hence the need to carry out this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The emergence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) particularly the Internet has brought about a remarkable shift from the use of print to electronic resources of recent, with this trend, information whether scholarly or otherwise is produced electronically or digitally. The Internet resources and services are very important in the conduct of academic activities by academic staff because of their awareness and access toward Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the library. Ogunjobi and Fagbami (2012) confirm that Internet resources and services enable lecturers to update their knowledge, prepare up-to-date lecture notes, communication and collaboration with colleagues.

However, little research has been conducted on internet information resources use and how demographic variables such as age, gender, discipline, academic qualification, living type, and marital status influence its use, especially among faculty members. Also, the use of internet resources may be influenced by cultural and ethnic differences. However despite the massive investment on the internet resources, it has been realized that the resources utilization levels are low. It is with the above scenario in mind that this work was conducted so as to assess the use of internet resources by the staff/student of the department of library and information science.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is assess the availability and utilization of internet resources for information sourcing among library and information science students of nnamdi azikiwe university, Awka

The specific research objectives are stated below:

  1. To identify what types of Internet resources are provided in the libraries
  2. To determine if information seekers are aware of the existence of `Internet resources in the institutions libraries.
  3. To determine the extent of use of these resources by Undergraduate students .
  4. To find out those factors that hinders the use of Internet resources and services in the department of library and information science.

1.4 Research Questions

The study has the following research questions:

  1. What types of Internet resources are available in the University libraries?
  2. How are the Internet information resources accessed by the undergraduate students ?
  3. To what extent are the Internet resources used by undergraduate students ?
  4. What are the challenges faced in using of the Internet resources by the undergraduate student?

1.5 Significance of the study

  1. Since the search for printed materials in the library waste time, the study is significant because it will bridge the gap in time of access to information in print materials and those in Internet resources. It will also create awareness for the various management to join the current technological trend of development by providing Internet resources to undergraduate students.
  2. It will also bring to light the use or non-use of these internet resources by the intend students.
  3. It will reveal the problems encountered in the use of the resources towhich solutions will be proffered?
  4. Recommendations from the study will serve a useful purpose in pointing the way forward in the provision and use of internet resources in the institutions. It will contribute to the existing knowledge and literature in the area of internet resources.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of Study

The study is centered on the assessing the availability and utilization of internet resources for information sourcing among library and information science students of Nnamdi Azikiwe university, Awka. The targeted subjects/population for the study are the students of Library and Information Science in the Nnamdi Azikiwe university.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined in the context in which they are used in this study:

Availability

This is ready access to information in the electronic format with little or no stress to the library user.

Awareness

This is the knowledge that something exists because an individual or the intended user notices it or realizes that it is available or happening.

Assessment

Is the systematic collection of information about student learning, using the time, knowledge, exercise and resources available in order to inform decision about how to improve learning.

CD-ROM

Compact disc (CD) according to Risopoulous (1988:78) is a laser – read (also termed optically read) data storage device on which audio, video or textual material can be stored.

Internet Resources

These are electronic information resources that users access electronically via a computing network. Examples include online databases, e- journals, e-books, CD-ROMs, audio visual multimedia, etc.

OPAC

An Online Public Access Catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply Library Catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. It is a computerized library catalog available to the public. Most OPACs are accessible over the Internet to users all over the world.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.t
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents summaries of the findings. It also contains the conclusion that was drawn and recommendations that were made on how to improve in assessing the use of Internet resources


5.2 Summary of Findings

  1. The findings based on research question one reveals that, there are different Internet resources available in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries which show most of the Internet resources listed in the options are available in the library, and library website, computer, online database, CD-ROMs and internet are available in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries.
  2. The research question two also reveals that, the library computers are the major ways to access Internet information resources and also the techniques used in acquiring the skills to access Internet are through courses offered in Nnamdi Azikiwe university.
  3. The extent of using Internet information resources in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries by undergraduate students of library science reveals that library website, online database and computers compare to others Internet resources and also there is adequate use of Internet as information resources in Nnamdi Azikiwe university by library science department
  4. It can be said that the challenges students faced when using Internet information resources by undergraduate students of library science are insufficient computer and slow internet connectivity among others.

5.3 Conclusion

It could be concluded from the findings of this study that there are different type of Internet resources available in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries which include library website, computer, online database, CD-ROMs and internet. Only fax mail that is not available and it may be due to lack of awareness like other Internet resources. Library website is the major ways to access Internet information resources in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries and also, personal handheld devices are list used to access Internet information resources.

However, the techniques used to acquire the skills in accessing Internet resources in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries by undergraduate students of library science is through courses offered at the university. Library websites, online databases, and computers are mostly used by student of library science at Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries because despite the many Internet information resources found in Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries, to access Internet information and finally, slow internet connectivity with frequency of 51(59%) recorded the challenges faced when accessing Internet information resources an Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the major findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are strongly made:

  1. The library should make available other types of Internet information resources like internet websites, email services, flash drives, multimedia fax, and other type of Internet information resources to help students in there study and research.
  2. It is recommended that Nnamdi Azikiwe university libraries should improvethe use of personal computer, their smart phones and handheld devices to help students access their e-resources in the library.
  3. It is recommended that awareness of other Internet information resources like fax, multimedia, internet websites, e-journals, e-books should be done by the library to help students in there research and studies.
  4. Finally, it is recommended that, sufficient networked computers are available for students, adequate I.T skills; computer literacy should be provided in the library to the students in Nnamdi Azikiwe university.

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