Virtual Learning As A Method Of Increasing Literacy In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Virtual Learning As A Method Of Increasing Literacy In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was designed to investigate the virtual learning as a method of increasing literacy in Nigeria. It also examined its problems and prospect. The design of the study was questionnaire, specifically Frequency count, Percentage, Mean, t-test and ANOVA look into the Prospects And Challenges Of E-Learning in Nigerian University Education with a view to find out the area of strength and weakness in Computer usage .upon identifying weakness ,the study aimed at providing recommendation for improvement. 140 students and staffs participated in the study by providing data which was sought through the use of questionnaires. The instrument required information on Computer training background competence and literacy level of the Students and Staffs. Result level shows that acquaintance level necessary for the use of e- learning facilities by students were very high and Inability to operate computer and internet devices makes e-learning boring to National Open University of Nigeria students. Although, some staff and student of NOUN don’t know how to operate computer and learning new software’s to enhance e- learning does not waste student/staff time but inequality of access to technology is the prior challenges of e-learning among the student of NOUN. Also, E-learning is alternative to the face-to- face teaching method; E-learning complements face-to-face teaching method, and increased collaboration learning and interaction. There are significant challenges and prospects of E-learning in Nigerian University education such as inappropriate maintenance, no stable internet provider to support easy and fast learning and teaching, and this problem can be alleviated since there is no any significance difference between education via electronic means and conventional means if Government can. To counter the effect of challenges, Nigeria education can be ascertain if Government make internet accessible, provide adequate personnel on maintenance and finance e- learning.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Virtual learning is not a new phenomenon in the promotion of education in some parts of the world. Currently, some Nigerian institutions use it to promote distance learning and lifelong learning. Virtual Learning After-Sale (2002) uses electronic technologies to provide education and training applications, monitor learner performance, and report student progress.

Hedge and Hayward (2004) have defined this approach as an innovative approach to creating interactive, well-designed, interactive learning and interactive e-learning learning environments for everyone, anytime, anywhere. using the Internet and digital technologies, taking into account the principles of instructional design. It’s about learning with computers. At present, computer learning is simply an online method of acquiring knowledge on the Internet or an offline CD-ROM. Online includes the use of Internet Explorer / Navigator. It can be in audio, visual or audio/visual form.

The process and applications of virtual learning technology include computer-assisted learning, web-based learning, virtual learning, blended learning, hybrid learning, Internet networked learning, television learning, computer-assisted learning, and digital content collaboration. , Audio and/or video cassettes, satellite television and CD-ROMs (Arbaugh, 2000, Achuonye,2004, Ukoha, 2007). In Nigerian schools, virtual learning is most often used in the form of CD-ROM course notes, which can be read at the discretion of the learner.

The problem with this method is that the number of students per computer on which these facilities are available is not interactive compared to the time spent in class. Some institutions have taken over the use of intranet facilities.

However, this is not well maintained due to the constant power supply problem and the high operating costs of the generator. Most students in Nigeria go to the Cyber Café. However, since people of different intensity are simultaneously on the Internet and the problem of bandwidth arises, a multimedia interaction program can not be executed. In spite of all these challenges and all the other challenges facing the virtual learning institution in Nigeria, institutions such as the University of Ibadan, the Obafemi Awolowo University, the University of Benin, Abuja University, the University of Lagos and the Open University of Nigeria relies on virtual learning facilities. The number seems very low (compared to other parts of the world and the usefulness of virtual learning for economic development), as most institutions are localized and have problems with bandwidth and, most importantly, with electricity.

Although most educational institutions (private and public) have started to set up their ICT centers only for Internet services, ignoring the other components of the virtual learning center.


1.2 Problem Statement

The emergence and diffusion of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) have triggered an unstoppable revolution in education, particularly in the areas of teaching and learning. Internet and the Internet have further accelerated the revolutionary pace, including improving e-learning. For most providers of open learning and distance learning, e-learning has given access to another dimension. Although the nations themselves praise open and distance learning (ODL) as a way to free themselves from the problem of massive access to education, learning E-11 further expands borders by further reducing the distance between education and helping people living in the region are able to access education at any time, at their own pace and anywhere.

Online learning or online education provides students with excellent opportunities to communicate individually with their learning materials, learning resources and tutors. It is the interactive use of technology and communication systems to enhance the learning experience. This has the potential to change the way we teach and learn throughout the year (24 hours a day, 7 days a week). This can raise the level and increase participation in lifelong learning. It is important to keep in mind that as e-learning via networking technologies, e-learning involves the use of virtual technologies in the practice of teaching, learning and learning. evaluation (Lee, Hong, and Ling, 2002). Therefore, the study examines the impact of virtual learning methods on literacy


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine Virtual learning as a method of increasing literacy in Nigeria Specifically the study:

  1. To raise general awareness of the academic community of virtual learning tools.
  2. To examine virtual learning effects on literacy level.
  3. To initiate a culture of innovation that will lead to an increase in literacy level in the country.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Attempting to tackle this study could provide a diagnostic basis for solving the problems or challenges of e-learning and the prospects for e-learning in Nigerian higher education. It may also be useful to change the altitude of students and teachers/lecturers in relation to virtual learning. It also identifies the role of government in developing virtual learning by providing virtual learning resources.

In addition, teachers/lecturers, students, and government are sensitized to the challenges and opportunities of e-learning in Nigerian higher education.


1.5 Study Hypothesis

The study hypothesis is:

Hypothesis 1
  • HO: virtual learning does not have a significant effect on literacy level
  • H1: virtual learning has a significant effect on literacy level.
Hypothesis 2
  • Ho: innovation does not have a significant effect on the literacy level.
  • H1: Innovations have a significant effect on the literacy level.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study scope is limited to investigating the examine Virtual learning as a method of increasing literacy in Nigeria in Lagos state civil service. Limitation faced by the research was limited time and financial constraint


1.7 Definition of Basic Terminologies

Education:

Education refers to the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.

University Education:

This refers to an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education. It is otherwise known as higher education, post-secondary education, tertiary education or third-level education.

Distance Education:

Distance education refers to a method of studying in which lectures are broadcasted or classes are conducted by correspondence or over the internet, without the students needing to attend a school or college.


1.8 Organisation of Study

The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter deals with the discussion of the findings made by the researcher, conclusion and necessary recommendations for further studies.


5.1 Summary of Findings

The potentials of investigating and identifying the challenges and prospects of e-learning in Nigerian university education. This study use National Open University of Nigeria, Akure Study.

The report use for this present study revealed that the acquaintance level necessary for the use of e-learning facilities is very high. This is against the research carried out by Resnick M. (2002) and Folorunso, Ajayi and Daniel (2002) that mass unawareness, low computer literacy level and cost were identified as critical factors affecting the acceptability of e-learning by students and lecturers of Nigerian universities.

Also, the report also shows that Inability to operate computer and internet devices makes e- learning boring to National Open University of Nigeria students, it can also be view from the report that some staff and student of NOUN don’t know how to operate computer. It is also worthy of note that learning new software’s to enhance e-learning does not waste student/staff time but inequality of access to technology is the prior challenging of e-learning among the student of NOUN. The report also shows that NOUN has no stable internet provider to support easy and fast learning and teaching and but the available e-learning materials in NOUN were allowed to be use by staff and students according to the report from the study. It can also be seen clearly that the NOUN students have the knowledge on how to use e-learning facilities and the NOUN management really like e- learning methodology and techniques towards teaching and learning based on the researcher report. This report is in support of the previous work by Aduke A.F. (2008).

Furthermore, the report also shows that NOUN has equipment and tools to support e-learning, NOUN e-learning facilities and equipment’s are not out-dated and can meet present need and alsoNOUN has financial support to improve e-learning but the equipment and facilities available are not well maintained.

Nevertheless, the report also shows that E-learning is alternative to the face-to-face teaching method, E-learning complements face-to-face teaching method, and E-learning increased collaboration learning and interaction. This is in support of the finding of (Ndam and Oti, 2010), (Yaakub and Finch, 2010). Kajetanowtez and Wierzejewski (2010), and Garrison and Anderson (2003) that the use of e-learning helps learners to become motivated, eager to learn and creative.

The report on the Research hypothesis shows that there are significant challenges and prospects of E-learning in Nigerian University education, this in support of the previous work of (Ukoha, 2007). Also, there is no significant difference between education via Electronic means and conventional means from the report.


5.2 Conclusion

This study discovered that the acquaintance level necessary for the use of e-learning facilities by students were very high and Inability to operate computer and internet devices makes e-learning boring to National Open University of Nigeria students. Although, some staff and student of NOUN don’t know how to operate computer and learning new software’s to enhance e-learning does not waste student/staff time but inequality of access to technology is the prior challenges of e-learning among the student of NOUN. Also, E-learning is alternative to the face-to-face teaching method, E- learning complements face-to-face teaching method, and increased collaboration learning and interaction.

There are significant challenges and prospects of E-learning in Nigerian University education such as inappropriate maintenance, no stable internet provider to support easy and fast learning and teaching, and this problem can be alleviated since there is no any significance difference between education via electronic means and conventional means if Government can provide adequate personnel on maintenance and finance e-learning.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the finding of this study the following recommendations were made:

  1. For e-learning to be effective, appropriate measure should be given to maintenances, provision of stable internet provider to support easy and fast learning and teaching.
  2. Basic knowledge on how to operate computer and computer related tools should be given to both the students and staff of NOUN.
  3. Curriculum planner should try to integrate effective practical attainment strategy and how learner of e-learning can be evaluated in order for optimum functional education.
  4. Electricity is one of the driven force and backbone of computer and computer tools, so Government should finance and connect NOUN to a stable electric grid.
  5. The responsibility for computer study programme development for students and staff should be extended to all stakeholders and should not be limited to the ministry of education.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How can we use digital tools to support students’ learning?

When texts feature critical tier 2 and tier 3 words that students must master, we can use digital bulletin boards or online whiteboards to make word walls and concept sorts; Google docs and Kami to create Frayer Models, vocabulary trees, and personal dictionaries; and online games to reinforce learning.

How can we adapt digital texts to students’ reading levels?

When content is key, we may need to adapt our digital texts to students’ reading levels by hyperlinking definitions and embedding context clues into digital texts, or by using digital platforms like Newsela, CommonLit, ReadWorks, or TweenTribune to select differentiated texts based on students’ reading levels.

How can we use videos in teaching and learning?

We can use videos to dialogue with students: They might send a video update on their reading project or read a passage aloud and describe how they constructed their understanding of the text, and we can provide video feedback, which evidence suggests may be more effective than written feedback. 

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