Parents Literacy Level And Female Students Attitude Towards Education In Sagbama LGA

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Parents Literacy Level And Female Students Attitude Towards Education In Sagbama LGA


This study investigates parents literacy level and female students attitude towards education in Sagbama LGA. Girls and boys have the same rights to a quality education. But the ‘gender gap’ becomes painfully evident when looking at who is in the classroom. The need for the girl-child education in the society is not only imperative but it is indispensable for the socio-economic development of Nigeria. Nigerian girls are still disadvantaged in their access to education. The study was therefore conducted to assess the perception, attitude and practices of parents in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State towards girl-child education. It was a descriptive cross sectional study aimed at providing baseline information for subsequent intervention. The sample size was 370 parents with children of school age. Equal number of male and female respondents was sampled and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through interviewer administered questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed by the computer using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software package, version 15. The study revealed that the perception and attitude of respondents towards girl-child education was good. Over 90% of respondents were aware that education is a child right. Over 90% of them also think that enrolling girl-child in primary school is important. Most of the respondents believed in enrolling their girl-child in primary school between the ages of two and five and about 90% of them thought that female child should be educated up to the tertiary level. There was still a lag in primary school completion among girls with a higher value when compared with the boys. The percentage of female drop out from primary school was 8.2% compared with 2.7% for males. Poverty was the major cause of female children’s school dropout among respondents.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the Study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.11 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data and Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Girl-child education is one of the issues that seem to be receiving prominent attention in Nigeria today. The development is indeed a reflection of the global trend towards girl-child empowerment. Mention liberation, greater equality and indiscrimination. The background to this is predicated on the understanding of the noble role of girl-child in the socio-economic and political development at any country (Nwaubani, 1998).

Girl child no doubt is the most influential but often neglected group in most of the Nigerian societies. The neglect to a large extent has made girl-child one of the disadvantaged groups in the developing countries at the world where they are marginalized on account of gender, social and cultural bias as well as other stereotypes (UNESCO 1992).

In Nigeria, education is perceived as an instrument par excellence for effective national development (N.P.E 2004). In endorsing the importance of education for all Nigerians, the National Basic education in a variety of forms, depending on the need and possibilities be provided for all citizens bearing this goal in mind, the government is expected to treat citizens equally in the process of providing educational opportunities. This, therefore, suggest that no Nigerianchild should be deemed access to education and self-fulfillment based on some perceived misconceptions, like parental look Warm attitude, social stigma and gender superiority et.c.Indeed girl-child education is very important for the overall development of the country. The place of girl-child in our society is indeed such as the important one that any deliberate neglect of their education could portend danger for the entire society.In fact, it has been often said to teach a boy child is to teach an individual, to teach a girl-child is to teach a family and a nation (Frederick 1981).

In education, female pass on their knowledge to their peers and other family members particularly their daughters thereby multiplying the effect of their education. It could be said that while education is essential for boys and girls, the benefits of educating, girls tend to be greater. This is so because female education has been found to have a more significant impact on poverty reduction and the provision of sustainable development by influencing the family size and female labour participation. Hence parents should always think of these merits of girl-child education and allow their girl-child to be educated.

It is indeed the responsibility of the family and society to protect the rights of all children including the girl-child. Thus a caring society will not only given dignity to young children through education but equally createconditions in which they can actualize their potentials and material of ensuring that the educational right of the girl-child is safeguarded is a very vital one.

This is so because human rights in general and educational right, in particular, have a specific application to female children probably because of her society neglect and bias. Despite the new universal advantages of female education parents tend to prefer to educate their son’s given women’s role, the household economy and the perceived disadvantage of investing in a girl-child who will marry into another family and take with her the advantage she has gained (U.N.F.A 1993).

The above demerit is one of the attitudes of parents towards girl-child education in Oyo State. But the most pronounced ones include perception of girl-child education and their peculiar household role’s poor parental educational background, poverty and limited resources et.c.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Indeed parental attitudes urged the femalechild to think of nothing rather than becoming wives and mothers as their parents and society expect(Aderelegbe, 2006). More so, parents inculcate this into the girl from a very tender age, in the choice of duties in the home for instance girls young ones cook, wash and tidy the home, the boys are left with duties as washing the car or laundry. Furthermore, the western education system indoctrinated parents hence added little scale to poor parental attitude to western education. This is vividly illustrated in the textbook ussed at all levels of the Nigerian education system. The textbook seems to be gender stereotypes. Because even at primary level the textbook has stereotyped pictures such as father reading newspaper, or watching television, a mother with a baby on back, carrying basket on her way to market conversely. Within the cultural factor, lies the religious dimension which in Oyo State also seem to be a prominent issue in parental attitude on girl-child education owing to poor parental attitude thus factor has created a wide gap between male and female enrolment in western education.The economic factor is also another problem which makes parents to deprive their female children of education. This is because girl-child seen, as migrants hence need not to waste any fund for them.However, some parents are absolutely poor and could not the burden of their female child education. Since to some parents, the female would be married to another family.

It is in the light of the above problem that the researcher seeks to examine and analyze the parental attitude towards girl-child education in Oyo State with particular reference to Agbowo area, Ibadan.

1.3 Research Objectives

The main objective of the study is to investigate parents literacy level and female students attitude towards education in Sagbama LGA .

Specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To investigate the factors that prevent girl-child educationin Sagbama LGA.
  2. To examine the Benefits of Girl child education in Sagbama LGA.
  3. Investigate the school enrolment age of male and female children education in Sagbama LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study;

  1. What are the factors that prevent girl-child educationin Sagbama LGA?
  2. What are the Benefits of Girl child educationin Sagbama LGA?
  3. What is the school enrolment age of male and female children educationin Sagbama LGA?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research will be of immense benefit to parents generally. Those who come across it would appreciate the many benefit that can be derived education, especially girl-child education. It will enable parents who have a view about education for girl-child to have a rethink and they are negatively about girl-child education changes to positively.

Also, this research will go a long way in assisting education students in the University of Ibadan for their research work and leisure reading.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research will be carried out within (Agbowo) area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria to be precise. This is to enable the researcher to get a good random sample from elites, parents and teenagers alike. The research is restricted to just the Agbowo area of Ibadan in Oyo state i.e the attitude of parents towards the education of their girl child in Agbowo environs.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial Constraints:

The researcher was with limited funds, she cannot visit all the areas to get responses from respondents but she was able to get good information concerning the research topic.

Time Constraints:

The researcher was involved in other departmental activities like seminars, attendance of lectures et.c which limited her time for the research but the researcher was able to meet up with the time assigned for the completion of the research work.

1.8 Definition of Terms


This is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and are an acquired state through experiences.


This depicts individuals’ involvement in formal training to acquire basic knowledge, skills and expertise necessary for living a meaningful and impactful life. It generally aims at the development of human abilities (Schaeffer 2005:375).

Girl child:

Is a female under aged 18, or a persons’ child or girlfriend, or a group of woman friends. A young 15-year-old female is an example of someone who would be considered a girl.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
  2. Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

Over 80% of respondents reported their female children never miss a day of school in relation to absenteeism. This demonstrates that a sizable portion of respondents keep an eye on their kids’ attendance at school. This is not surprising considering that the majority of respondents acknowledged that it is the parents’ obligation to ensure their children attend school on a regular basis. Despite the fact that 325 (87.9%) of respondents claimed to be able to regularly pay their children’s school fees, some respondents’ unemployment may be the cause for the remaining respondents’ inability to do so. In Nigeria, one of the main causes of people living in poverty is unemployment.
The completion and dropout rates of the respondents’ children’s primary schooling were questioned in order to ascertain the respondents’ patterns of school enrollment. Male children of respondents are more likely than female children to have finished elementary school (59.2% for boys and 49.2% for girls). Although the number of female primary school dropouts (8.2%) may seem low, when compared to the number of male dropouts (2.7%), it is clear that girls still trail behind boys in finishing primary school. The majority of respondents who were asked why the girls dropped out of school said it was because of a lack of funds and to allow the female children to run errands for their parents.

Over 90% of parents sampled in this study identified regular attendance of the child in school and enrollment of the child in school as primary responsibilities of the parents. More than half of the respondents also agreed that the responsibilities of parents toward the child also include making sure that the child does his or her homework, meeting the teacher regularly to understand their child’s progress and monitoring regular attendance of teacher to ensure that their children get the best at school. Similar study in North Karnataka revealed similar result where 85% of respondents said that enrolment of a child in school was the responsibility of the parent, 84% said that parents should ensure that children should attend school regularly, 71% said parents should meet teacher regularly to understand the progress of their child and 65% of them agreed that parents should ensure that their children do their homework(Ekefre, et al, 2014).

5.2 Conclusion

This study reveals that almost all the respondents were aware that education is a child right. Their perception towards girl-child education was also very good with almost all respondents saying that educating a girl child is important. The three most ranked factors by respondents as those militating against girl-child education were early marriage among females, poverty among household and pregnancy among girls of school age while the two leading benefits of girl child education recognized byrespondents included giving the female children the best start to life and protecting the girl-child from exploitation like child labour.

l-child education was also good. Most respondents feel that a girl-child should be enrolled early enough as majority of them chose between ages two and four as the best for the enrollment of a girl child. The proportions of school enrollment for male and female children of the respondents were very high but with more drop outs among the female children than the males. The respondents’ reason for female drop out of school was because of lack of money.

Introduction and implementation of adult education among the uneducated parents will enhance better understanding of the relevance of girl-child education. Poverty among household should be addressed. Extra assistance such as free school meal or stipends linked to regular attendance helps poor families keep girls in school for longer. In addition, education at primary and secondary levels should be made free. Finally, there is need to conduct similar study in order to compare response and possible review strategy towards prompt attainment of the Millennium Development Goal related to girl-child education.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made:

  1. Parents should have the number of children they can cater for and be responsible for the proper upbringing of their children until marriage.
  2. Parent s should stop pressurizing their daughters to go out to earn income for them.
  3. Communities should stop honouring traffickers and affluent returnees’ with titles and recognition in public occasions.
  4. Government should give special concessions for female applicants into education in terms of admission requirements.
  5. Government should remove societal barriers to girl-child participation in schools.
  6. Government should implement free education for all primary and secondary school levels.

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