Impact Of Street Hawking On Girl Child Academic Performance

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Impact Of Street Hawking On Girl Child Academic Performance

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of Study

The developmental psychologist emphasizes all aspects of the child development process, laying particular emphasis on factors which affect these developmental trends. According to the United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF, 2000), there are 121 million out-of-school children worldwide, with 65 million girls and 80 percent from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Involving children in hawking goods in the street is an emerging trend in Nigeria and an issue of concern. This trend is referred to as; child street trading (Ashimolowo, Aromolaran & Inegbedion, 2010), child street hawking (Mathias & Dada, 2013), juvenile street hawking (Udoh & Joseph, 2012) and child street vendor (Ugochukwu, Okeke, Onubogu & Edokwe, 2012). Children are preferred to adults in hawking goods because they are less criminal and are cheap labour for the employer (Arhedo, Aluede & Arhedo, 2011; Anumaka, 2012). This has led to an increase in the number of children who roam the street daily hawking goods while those of their age are in school.

Hence, many girls are sent out of school to the street to ‘hawk’ goods or other forms of economic activities to supplement the family income. Despite efforts by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Girl Education Project (GEP), and Nigeria Enhancing Girl Basic Education in Nigeria (ACTIONAID) to reduce child hawking abuse and teach these girls basic literacy and skills that will enable them to earn a living.

Girl child education in Yobe state began when the federal government of Nigeria, in collaboration with the United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF), recognized the need to reduce child hawking abuse. Many parents are unconcerned about educating their daughter because they believe she will become someone else’s property very soon, while others hide behind religion.Girl children are usually saddled with domestic work and the majority of them are withdrawn from schools to the labour market to fend for the whole family through hawking or petty trading (Nigeria Tribune, September 3, 2002). For this reason, the gender gap in education must be closed, especially by creating socio-economic and political conditions that will permit and encourage girls’ children to be in schools. It is hence upon this background that this study is focused on examining the impact of street hawking on girls’ children’s academic performance.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Female adolescent students are expected to revise their notes, do their homework, and rest after school to prepare them for the next day’s school activities which will improve their academic performance. However, it is been observed that not all the students (with female students inclusive) revise their notes, do homework and rest after school hours. The students, instead, engage in income-generating activities such as selling goods after school hours to contribute to family income. By this attitude, students have their attention divided between academic work and income generating activities. This ugly trend exists at a time when the academic performance of students is declining. Arising from the question that comes to mind is; could this attitude have any effect on the academic performance of the students? Which hence warrants this study.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The overall objective of this study is to examine the impact of street hawking on the academic performance of female adolescent students in Yobe State. The specific objectives include;

  1. To find out the effect of street hawking on the academic performance of female adolescent students?
  2. To find out if there is any significant relationship between the socioeconomic status of parents and girl-child street hawking
  3. Identify the consequences of girl child street hawking.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho1:Street hawking has no effect on the academic performance of female adolescent students.
  • Ho2: There is no relationship between the socioeconomic status of parents and girl-child street hawking

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will be of great importance, as it will provide necessary information on the causes, effects and remedies of girl-child street hawking in Nigeria. The study will also inform illiterate parents and parents who are less concerned about their female children’s education about the consequences of disrupting such a child’s academic participation, as well as the benefits of supporting and sponsoring their female children’s education. The study will also be useful for research into street hawking within and outside the country.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study is restricted to the effect of street hawking on the academic performance of female adolescent students and also the relationship between girl-child street hawking and the socioeconomic status of parents. Hence, this study should be limited to secondary schools in Bade Local Government Area of Yobe State.

1.8 Limitation Of Study

The factors itemized below were the major limitations of this study;

Financial Constraint:

Due to the lack of enough funds for purchasing research materials and transportation to the research area, the researchers find it difficult to arrive at appropriate findings


The time of this research study was short. In view of this, the researcher could not cover many areas more.

Language Barrier:

The researcher does not speak some of the respondents’ language, thus making him to use an interpreter who could not adequately interpret the information needed well.

1.8 Definitions Of Terms


This is the act of parading along roads and streets with goods beckoning on buys to patronize.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.

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Impact Of Street Hawking On Girl Child Academic Performance


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