Domestic Violence On Children And Its Effect On Academic Performance (A Case Study Of Edo State)

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Domestic Violence On Children And Its Effect On Academic Performance (A Case Study Of Edo State)


The main aim of the study is to find out the effects of domestic violence on performance of students in public secondary schools. The case study was conducted in Benin city of Edo State.

Chapter one entails the background of the study which has grounded out the negative effects of domestic violence generally in our society as a summary of literature review. The statement of the problem clearly states the research gap that is how domestic violence is negatively affecting performance, well defined purpose of the study research questions, delimitation and limitations of the study. Chapter two entails important findings briefly described from previous research studies. Chapter three presents the methodology used by the researcher which entails; research design, location of the study, target population, sampling techniques, research instruments, reliability and validity of the instruments.

The sample design used by the researcher is both qualitative and quantitative because the tools used are both numeric and non numeric where a sample of fifty secondary school students were drawn from the target public secondary school population in Benin city and six teachers from the teacher population from the two sample schools. The researcher used observation schedules, questionnaires and focus group discussion in gathering data.

Table of Contents

Chapter One


  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Delimitation of the Study
  • 1.7 The limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Domestic Violence
  • 2.2 Effects of Domestic Violence
  • 2.3 Domestic Violence and School Drop Outs / Truancy
  • 2.4 Domestic Violence and Poor Academic Performance
  • 2.5 Domestic Violence and Violent Behavior in Schools
  • 2.6 Domestic Violence and Concentration
  • 2.7 Recommendation
  • 2.7.1 Helping Children and Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence
  • 2.8 Conclusion

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 The Research Design
  • 3.2 Targeted Population
  • 3.3 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4 Data Collection Instruments
  • 3.4.1 Validity of Research Instrument
  • 3.4.2 Reliability of Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Data Collection Procedure
  • 3.6 Methods of Data Analysis
  • 3.6.1 Coding of Data
  • 3.6.2 Tabulation of Data
  • 3.6.3 Interpretation of Data
  • 3.6.4 Editing of Data

Chapter Four

Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Quantitative Analysis
  • 4.1.1 Age of Respondents
  • 4.1.2 Truancy and domestic violence
  • 4.1.3 Domestic Violence and School Drop Out
  • 4.1.4 Domestic Violence and Poor Concentration
  • 4.1.5 Domestic Violence and Violent Behavior
  • 4.1.6 Substance Abuse / Alcoholism and Domestic Violence
  • 4.1.7 Physical Abuse / Abuse on Property and Domestic Violence
  • 4.1.8: Sexual / Psychological Abuse and Domestic Violence
  • 4.2 Qualitative Analysis
  • 4.2.1 Truancy
  • 4.2.2 School Drop-outs
  • 4.2.3 Violence
  • 4.2.4 Poor Concentration
  • 4.2.5 Alcohol / Substance Abuse

Chapter Five

Conclusion Summary of Findings and Recommendations

  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusions of the Study
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix 1: Questionnaire for Student
  • Appendix II: Teachers Questionnaire
  • Appendix III: Research Work Plan

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Ganley (1989) states that domestic violence includes: physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse and abuse of property and pets. According to him, exposure to these forms of violence has considerable potential to be perceived as a threat to the lives of victims and can make them feel vulnerable, helpless and, in extreme cases, horrified. Dutton (1992) defines physical violence as any behavior that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person and that may cause physical injury, injury and / or pain. This includes pushing, hitting, slapping, suffocating, using an object to hit, twisting a part of the body, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and using a weapon. Dutton (1994) defines sexual abuse as any unwanted sexual intimacy imposed on an individual by another.

This may include oral stimulation or anal or vaginal penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to material or explicit sexual activity. Compliance can be achieved by actual physical force or threat or other forms of coercion. Psychological abuse 2 may include derogatory statements or the threat of loss of life by another person. It can also involve isolation, economic threats and emotional abuse.

Straus and Gelles (1990), domestic violence is widespread and affects all social and economic groups. A national survey of more than 6,000 American families found that between 53% and 70% of violent men also abuse their children. Domestic violence is one of the least reported crimes in the United States, and the Department of Justice estimated in 1998 that there were between 960000 and four million domestic incidents each year.

In 1994, statistics from the justice office estimated that around 92% of domestic violence cases involved women. Wopadovi (women against domestic violence) 2014, domestic violence threatens many Nigerian families and, unfortunately, increases in our society. Many people, including the vast majority of women, have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. After recent events in which domestic violence has become commonplace and every day the death of spouses and lovers of domestic violence is reported, it has become a high priority to make domestic violence a threat that must be addressed. Face as soon as possible. All the seriousness that you deserve. Wopadovi also points out that domestic violence does not recognize the standards of class or social education. Domestic violence according to Wikipedia (2004) is a problem as in many parts of Africa. In Nigeria, there is a deep cultural belief that it is socially acceptable to beat a woman to discipline her spouse.

1.2 Problem Statement

Although domestic violence has been recognized today as one of the most entrenched and widespread forms of violence in Nigeria, its influence on schoolchildren has not yet received the same level of attention (Tony, 2002). Child victims or witnesses of domestic violence may develop physical, psychological and behavioral problems as a result of physical, verbal, psychological and other forms of violence. This can affect their participation in school because they can go to school when they are too afraid to learn and many of them may fall behind in class or in life because of exposure to domestic violence (Wathen, 2003). The short- and long-term emotional and physical sequelae of domestic violence can affect school attendance, student achievement, and behavioral patterns of students in school and participation in the classroom. It is not known how the types and extent of domestic violence affect student achievement and school participation.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the domestic violence on children and its effect on academic performance, using the Edo State as a case study.

Specifically the study:

  1. Establish the extent of various forms of domestic violence among households of different socio economic characteristics in Edo state.
  2. Determine the influence of domestic violence on pupil’s school attendance in primary schools in Edo state.
  3. Determine the influence of domestic violence on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Edo state.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Policy makers, school administrators and teachers in the education sector can use the findings of this study to formulate strategies for implementing PFH that promote the participation of children from vulnerable families in violence. Local government and social workers, as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), can use these findings to identify these abused families and children, develop strategies to combat domestic violence, and encourage socially inclusive intervention mechanisms. in poor neighborhoods The study can also benefit the legal or legislative framework by providing the necessary information to incorporate the laws of protection against domestic violence and school participation, the basic rights of education and regulations. The findings can also contribute to the national debate on domestic violence and its control, as well as ideas for future research on the causes, impacts and relationships of domestic violence with other elements of social and economic well-being. the society.

1.5 Study Hypothesis

The study hypotheses are:

  • Ho1 There is no significant difference in the extent of various forms of domestic violence among households of different socio-economic characteristics in Edo state.
  • Ho2 Domestic violence does not significantly influence pupils’ school attendance in primary schools in Edo state.
  • Ho3 Domestic violence does not significantly influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Edo state.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study scope is limited to investigating the impact of domestic violence on children and its effect on academic performance of primary school pupils in Edo state. Limitation faced by the research was limited time and financial constraint

1.7 Definition of Basic Terminologies

Academic Performance

It was the mean score in examinations of a pupil in the past one year in examinations given within the municipality.


This referred to the number of times a pupil was present during learning activities in school in one term.

Child Abuse

This consists of anything, which individuals, institutions or processes do or fail to do which directly or indirectly harms children or damages their prospects of safe and healthy development into adulthood.

Child Labour

This is any form of economic exploitation in which the child is involved or performance of any work that is likely to be hazardous or interfere with the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development

1.8 Organisation of Study

The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.

Chapter Five

Conclusion Summary of Findings and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

The chapter presents summary of findings of the study conclusions made from the findings.

5.1 Summary of Findings

The research findings led to the following conclusions. There was a major problem in the area school dropout rate, violence, poor concentration, truancy were just a drop in the ocean as the researcher gathered a lot of effects of domestic violence in Edo area. She found out that domestic violence is rampant. It has led to a trickledown effect to the society. Social vices in the area have been directly or indirectly caused by domestic violence at the grassroots(their homes) most teachers who are also parents confirmed the drug abuse, suicides, muggings and illegal trades are more of a result to high rates of school dropout rates and violence in the area.

The researcher also observed drug abuse and alcoholism has led to domestic violence in the area where parents become violent and create chaos at homes. The abuse has led to family breakups and disunity in the social setting. Some of the teachers are heavily charged with the duty of caring for the affected victims who are socially, psychologically, physically and morally affected. Domestic violence is real and is an issue that needs to be addressed with urgency.

5.2 Conclusions of the Study

The study came up with the following conclusions

  1. Domestic violence was found to be a major cause of truancy as many students did not go to school consistently and this affected their academic performance.
  2. Due to truancy as a result of domestic violence dropout rate was high resulting to students not completing their education leading to lack of tertiary education and joblessness.
  3. Domestic violence had contributed to high rate of insecurity in the region since teens tend to develop violence traits experienced during upbringing.
  4. Domestic violence caused poor concentration among students.
  5. In most cases, the inflictor of the violence was under the influence of alcohol and drug abuse hence increasing the rate of violence.

5.3 Recommendations

  1. From the research findings, domestic violence is rampant in contemporary society. There is therefore need for educating people about family responsibility, as way of eradicating domestic violence among families.
  2. There should be guidance and counseling therapy sessions in both school and community level. This will educate sensitize and rehabilitate each and every individual in the society. This would also help students to cope with the trauma associated with the violence
  3. The helping professionals should take responsibility of reporting the suspected abuse to the child protection agency or police; this would reduce the rate of violence since law will be applied effectively to apprehend offenders typically counselors and school personnel should be required to report and be granted immunity from liability because they are presumed to be acting in good faith.
  4. The government has also enacted laws but its efforts of implementing them bear no fruits, therefore legislation of strict laws should be formulated to protect the children
  5. Communities, churches, schools and the government should take the responsibility of minimizing domestic violence and provide security for the young ones in particular and the community as a whole.
  6. Finally offices should be erected in communities where one is able to report to in case of such incidences, they should be in strategic positions and easy to access in order to stem out the vice.
  7. The nation should move through stages of public awareness and face the phenomenon head on. Practitioners should be aware of the widespread domestic violence cases reported and unreported. And take action when necessary. Counselors should keep abreast of the indicators of maltreatment in order to help victims of domestic violence.

In conclusion, the above suggestions are inadequate and the researcher strongly recommends a consultative meeting involving all stake holders e.g. parent, educational officers, family based organizations, sponsors, teachers, pupils and the community at large to deliberate on effective counseling in our institutions in order to reduce if not stop domestic violence in our society

The recommendations suggested in this chapter are based on major findings and conclusion drawn from the study.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research

Further research should be done on the effects of alcohol and substance abuse on academic performance of students in secondary schools.

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