The Effect Of Unwanted Pregnancy On Secondary School Female Student’s Education In Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State

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The Effect Of Unwanted Pregnancy On Secondary School Female Student’s Education In Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is central to the development of young people as it prepares them for the worldof work and life. As young people spend longer periods in education, as part of the natural course of development, sexual experimentation and maturity is increasingly coinciding with secondary schooling (Panday, Makiwane, Ranchod & Letsoalo, 2009:5).
For manyteenagers it remains at the level of experimentation, and if sex occurs, indications are thatsome form of contraception is used when teenagers are still at school (Bhana, Morrell,Shefer & Ngabaza, 2010:873).

However, for many female student it results in unwanted pregnancy, HIVor other sexually transmitted diseases (Mwaba, 2000:32). Being a female student who ispregnant or a mother has implications for continued educational opportunities.

Nigeria is confronted with an escalating epidemic of female student pregnancies. Female students unwanted pregnancy has grown in significance as asocial construct and as such represents one of several indicators of burgeoning female student delinquency, sexual permissiveness and moral decay (Chigona and Chetty 2007).Female student unwanted pregnancy as a socioeconomic challenge and an important health problem for many communities in Nigeria.

It is a reflection of irresponsible sexual behavior and inconsistent use of contraception. According to Oni, Prinsloo, Nortje and Joubert (2005:55 Female student unwanted pregnancy may include health risks such as complications during pregnancy or delivery and secondary infertility if an abortion is done. In addition, the possibility of dropping out of school is considerable which results in a lack of educational qualifications and future employment.
Female student unwanted pregnancy is considered to be a disaster by most people. Yet female student unwanted pregnancies are increasing in number each year and are occurring at younger ages. Although this trend is noticeable all over the world, the problem is greater in developing countries such as Nigeria (Devenish, Funnell & Great head, 2004:180). The unwanted pregnancy rate amongst female student in Nigeria remains high by international comparison.

The rate of 13% in rural areas in Ilorin West L.G.A environment is twice the national average of 6.5%. Medical risks, disruption of education and long-lasting emotional problems are associated with female student pregnancy, the choice of what to do when the pregnancy is confirmed is too serious a matter for the level of maturity of most female students. A pregnant female student often faces confusing advice from people regarding pregnancy, child-rearing and education and this can undermine her confidence in herself and her ability to cope.

In their research Karra and Lee (2012:15) found that most female students perceive falling pregnant while still at school as a negative event with consequences such as difficulty at school or drop out, unemployment, quilt feelings, alienation from family members and friends and loss of a boyfriend, Mazibuko (2002:2) points to the fact that a baby changes its mother’s life in many ways.

A pregnant female students has to consider her future and the things she may not be able to do once the child is born, (Hughes, 2002:23) Will she be able to finish her education and have a professional career? Therefore, a pregnant female students needs to calculate the risks involved and determine whether she can take proper care of a baby and complete her education (Nash, 2002:151).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In essence the problem that will be investigated in this study pertains to the effect that unwanted pregnancy has on the education of a female student in Ilorin West, Kwara State Nigeria. Being a female student inevitably leads to schooling disruption or drop out, which means a life-world remarkably different from that of non-pregnant female student.

Therefore, some of the questions that require answers are:

  1. What are the reasons for female student unwanted pregnancy?
  2. What is the effect of the unwanted pregnancy on the education of the female student?
  3. What support is available for pregnant female student?

Many study have been carried out on effects of unwanted pregnancy on female students education in Nigeria. Among the authors includes Burger, Gouws and Kruger (2011) who wrote on effect on unwanted pregnancy on female students education in Ilorin West L.G.A, Kwara State Also Newman (2008:4) carried out research on effect of unwanted pregnancy on female students education in Lokoja L.G.A, Kogi State. To the best of the researcher knowledge no studies have been carried out on effects of unwanted.

In essence this statement of the problem investigated the reasons for female student pregnancy and the effect of. pregnancy on the schoolgirl’s education. Despite the availability and variety of methods of contraception many adolescent female student become pregnant in Ilorin West L.G.A, Kwara. Nigeria. The main reason why female student’ fall pregnant is having sex without any protection. There are various reasons why adolescent female student do not use any method of contraception, namely, not expecting to have intercourse and did not prepare for it, they prefer not to use protection, lack of knowledge about contraception and reproductive health, no access to contraceptives, embarrassment to get contraceptives or fear that their parents will find out they are sexually active.
Becoming pregnant and being a female student mother poses risks for educational success. This situation often disrupts or end schooling and the leap from school to tertiary education or employment. Absenteeism, poor academic performance, repetition of grades and dropout are results of schoolgirl pregnancy with consequences like poor job opportunities,increased dependency and poverty


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of unwanted pregnancy on female secondary school students in Ilorin West L.G.A. of Kwara State.

Specifically it found out:

  1. What are the causes of unwanted pregnancy among the females students
  2. The effect of unwanted pregnancy on education of the female student
  3. The nature of the support available for a unwanted pregnant of female students.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be answer the following research question.

  1. What are the causes of unwanted pregnancy among females students?
  2. What is the effect of unwanted pregnancy on the education of female students?
  3. What is the nature of the support available for an unwanted pregnancy of female students?

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study covered all teachers and female students in secondary schools in Ilorin West L.G.A of Kwara State. Ten (10) schools were selected for this study.

The schools are:

  1. Government High School Ilorin.
  2. Government Day Secondary School Adeta , Ilorin
  3. Government Day Secondary School Adewole , Ilorin
  4. Government Girls Secondary School Oko-Erin , Ilorin
  5. Government Day Secondary School OdoOkun , Ilorin
  6. Ilorin Grammar School, Ilorin.
  7. Junior Secondary School Odota, Ilorin.
  8. Sheik AbdulKadir Secondary School, Ilorin.
  9. Queen Elizabeth School, Ilorin.
  10. Waziri Junior Secondary School, Ilorin.

Five (5) and fifteen (15) female students were randomly selected from the each of the selected secondary school in Ilorin West L.G.A which totaled fifty (50) teachers and one hundred fifty (150) female students.


1.6 Operational Definition of Terms

Effect:

This refers to as the consequence of female students’ unwanted pregnancy on girl child education.

Pregnant Female Student:

A pregnant female student is a student who got pregnant during her course of education.

Causes:

This is refers to as the antecedent associated to female students unwanted pregnancy in secondary schools. This include violence, age discrepancy in relationship, child environmental factor etc

Support Available:

This are services provided by the government, school administrator and parents of female students who fall into the challenge of unwanted pregnancy to help in providing basic education to the affected female child.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter presents the discussion of the results, conclusions and recommendations based on the findings of the research.


5.1 Discussion of Results

This work focused on the Effect of Unwanted Pregnancy on Female Students Education in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Based on the results of the findings, it was discovered that:

Incorrect information obtained from peers/friend and media was ranked 1st, while low socioeconomic status (eg poverty and unemployment), lack of knowledge about sexuality, peer pressure (eg engaging in sexual activities to be accepted/conform, examples portrayed by the media (eg sexual conduct of movie/soapie stars on TV) and risk-taking behaviour (eg drug use promotes irresponsible sex activities) were rand 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th respectively. This finding is similar to the findings of Vander Valla (2007) who opined that girls tend to internalize their emotions, whereas boy tend to act out of emotion through externalized problem bahaviour. Amato (2005) opined that marriage divorce tends to affect girls and boys in similar ways, but there are some ways that boys and girls experience divorce differently. Young girls are affected by divorce is sine different ways than young boys.

It was revealed among other that an unsecured future perspective (eg lack of proper education and thus limited or no job opportunity was ranked 1st, while poor performance in school work (eg homework not done, absent for tests/assessments, discrimination by learners (eg learners avoid them and call them names, drop out of school (eg must leave school to take care of the baby and they are often absent from school (eg to visit clinic, doctor or not feeling well) were rand 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. The home environment also affects the academic performance of students. This finding is similar to the findings of Fiona (2009) who observed that those who had experience a late divorce (between grade six and 10) were more likely to get low grades than children who experienced an early divorce (between kindergarten and grade five).

Finally, the summary on the Table 3 shows that a school counselor policy relating to school girl pregnancy was ranked 1st, while special facilities for pregnant schoolgirls (eg to write exams), sexuality education is given to all the learners (eg use of contraceptives), a school counselor is available (eg help pregnant learners with emotional problems), and workshops on sexuality education are regularly conducted for educators were rand 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. This finding confirmed the finding that corroborates that of Odok (2013), Eamon (2005), and Eristwhistle (1986) observed that small family sizes are linked to higher educational attainment. Bysenk and Locksoh (2011) affirmed that most extroverted children come from smaller homes and that they adjust more easily to school environment can express themselves easily in the classroom therefore, they achieve a greater academic performance as opposed to introverted children of larger family size.


5.2 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study which stemmed from the data collected and analysed with the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Incorrect information obtained from peers/friend and media was ranked 1st was the most causes of unwanted pregnancy among female students.
  2. An unsecured future perspective (eg lack of proper education and thus limited or no job opportunity was ranked 1st was the most effect has unwanted pregnancy has on the education of the female students.
  3. A school counselor policy relating to school girl pregnancy was ranked 1st, while special facilities for pregnant schoolgirls (eg to write exams), sexuality education is given to all the learners (eg use of contraceptives), a school counselor is available (eg help pregnant learners with emotional problems), and workshops on sexuality education are regularly conducted for educators were rand 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively.

5.3 Recommendations

From the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Home and school environments should be protective enough to shield the children from exposure to negative influences, by parents and teachers been concerned about the well-being of the girl child through education about sex and sexuality and the danger inherent.
  2. Education of the girl child should be made free and compulsory at the basic education level. Free basic education for the girls will increase school enrolment of teenagers who hitherto were out of school as a result of exorbitant fees.
  3. Social welfare agencies (public and private) should redouble efforts in educating, counseling and rehabilitation of victims. By these efforts many of them could be encouraged to continue their education of engage in other meaningful activities to avoid early destitution and other life threatening experiences resulting from early motherhood.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Further studies could be carried out in the following areas:

  1. Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on the Academic and Socio-Psychological Well-Being of Rural Women in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  2. The Effect of Unwanted Pregnancy on Islamic Students in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

The Effect Of Unwanted Pregnancy On Secondary School Female Student’s Education In Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State


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The Effect Of Unwanted Pregnancy On Secondary School Female Student’s Education In Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State


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Frequently Asked Questions


What happens when a girl that should be in school gets pregnant?

When a girl that should be in school becomes pregnant, her entire life could be completely altered as her hopes and aspirations could be shattered. Teenage pregnancy is one of the social ills that affect society. The existence of teenage pregnancy significantly affects the development of the girl-child.

How does lack of basic education affect teenage pregnancy?

The findings showed that lack of support and care from parents and lack of provision for basic education about life and sex by parents enhance high rate of teenage pregnancy among teenage female.

How does teenage pregnancy affect society?

Teenage pregnancy is one of the social ills that affect society. The existence of teenage pregnancy significantly affects the development of the girl-child. This is attributable to the girls’ absence of any consistent means of support to care for the children and themselves when they should have been in school.

Should schools accept teenagers who drop out of school due to pregnancy?

It was concluded that since majority of the female teenage dropped out of school because of teenage pregnancy, school heads should accommodate those who are still interested in continuing with their educational pursuit after having their babies to complete their education by accepting them back. 

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