The Impact Of Teaching Materials In Nigerian Schools For Improving Teaching And Learning Situations

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The Impact Of Teaching Materials In Nigerian Schools For Improving Teaching And Learning Situations


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Coombs (2000), education has two components. These two components were divided into inputs and outputs by him. According to him, inputs are human and material resources, while outputs are the educational process’s aims and outcomes. Both the inputs and outputs comprise a dynamic organic whole, and the impacts of one component on the other must be investigated if the educational system is to be investigated and assessed in order to enhance its performance. Teaching materials are printed and non-printed things used in the educational process to convey knowledge to students (Luke, 2001). Kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, photos, recordings, slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks, and electronic media, including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD-ROMs, and online services, are examples of teaching materials. In the teaching-learning process, teaching material is extremely crucial. It improves the kids’ ability to remember things. Because education has extended so far at this time, just oral instruction cannot be the key to effective pedagogy; thus, the teacher must employ teaching materials to make the teaching-learning process engaging (Raw, 2003). The utilization of educational materials can help students learn more effectively. Cronbac (2009) identifies the critical parts of behavior that form the foundation for learning theory. Situations are made up of all the items, people, and symbols that may be found in a learner’s surroundings (Nicholls, 2000). Experience in a circumstance trains a person to respond to similar situations in the future. It is necessary to establish an environment in which the learner may be satisfied. Personal characteristics include all of the talents and usual responses that a person brings to a situation, and the use of teaching materials can appeal to the individual’s attention by generating interest. The learner’s objective is something he wants to achieve. Because objectives lead efforts, the teacher’s motivation challenge is fundamentally one of setting up a scenario with instructional material in which the student can perceive the goals he wants to achieve. Because objectives lead efforts, the teacher’s motivation challenge is fundamentally one of setting up a scenario with instructional material in which the student can perceive the goals he wants to achieve. Interpretation: When a person interprets a situation, they are able to take action. It will be simple for a teacher and a student to forecast what would happen if certain actions are conducted provided necessary aids are made available.

Activity: A person picks the action that he believes will provide him with the most satisfaction. The utilization of educational information can aid a person’s choice to take the proper course of action.

The term “consequence” refers to the actions that follow their outcomes. If instructional information is employed, the prediction will be gratifying, and the outcomes will justify the person’s labor, and he will be completely satisfied. In most sophisticated nations, instructional materials are employed effectively and actively to aid the teaching-learning process. However, the situation in the majority of developing nations, as well as Nigeria, is not positive. To begin with, schools are only given with lower-quality and lower-quantity educational materials. As a result, there is a scarcity of educational materials. Second, teachers are not properly trained to use instructional materials. Finally, teachers are uninterested in utilizing the educational materials. The Nigerian government spends a significant amount of money on education, yet the quality of education is poor. There are several elements to blame for this deplorable state of affairs. One of them is a lack of availability and ineffective utilization of educational materials. This aspect should be extensively studied using actual data. Educational inputs, also known as instructional resources, are critical to the teaching of any topic in the school curriculum (Lao, 2004). According to Wales (2005), the usage of instructional tools would help pupils remember newly obtained data. Savoury (2008) continued, “A well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books, and arouse students’ interest by giving them something practical to see and do, while also helping to train them to think things out for themselves.” Pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips, and models, according to Savoury (2008), are all helpful visual aids for teaching history. According to him, selecting resources that are connected to the core topics of a course or a lesson aids in-depth learning of such a lesson by making it appealing to students, therefore capturing their attention and inspiring them to study. He advocated for the employment of visuals to aid in the grounding of children’s thoughts and feelings. He claims that photographs are employed as substitutes for real items when showing them to pupils is impractical, and that they are beneficial in imagined tasks. It’s also critical to have enough and appropriate human resources in terms of teacher quality for all courses in the school curriculum. The goals of education will never be achieved unless teachers act as implementers. Schools should be appropriately and consistently equipped to encourage good and effective teaching in order to build a just and equal society, as outlined in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (2004). Schools should also have appropriate texts, experienced teachers, and enough libraries. According to Coombs (2000), scarcity of these will prevent the educational system from reacting adequately to changing needs. Better learning materials are required to improve education’s quality, efficiency, and productivity. Knezewich (2005) also emphasized the necessity of having a proper people strategy in place as well as enough physical facilities to support educational efforts. This study, on the other hand, attempted to analyze the influence of teaching material and their effective usage in enhancing teaching and learning conditions in large schools in the Offa local government of Kwara State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is well acknowledged across the world that the teaching materials used have a direct impact on students’ performance (Jane,200). The main components in learning are these instructional resources. According to Barnett (2002), instructors should cover the curricular contents and prepare students for standardized assessments. In any teaching and learning setting, student accomplishment is critical. Unfortunately, as academics in education have constantly pointed out over the last decade, pupils’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has not been particularly encouraging. This issue of poor performance appears to be escalating to the point where it may have an impact on the country’s whole economic predicament (Onasanya, 2002). Nonetheless, teachers have forgotten to employ teaching resources, and as a result, students’ enthusiasm to study has been diluted. All of this contributes to kids’ low performance. Year after year, many students do poorly in their exams, and the issue is becoming worse. As a result, they are more likely to have a miserable life in the future. Non-innovative teachers that do not wish to use the educational resources properly may be to blame for the low performance. This issue might also be caused by unqualified teachers. In this scenario, it is necessary to do research in order to determine the specific nature of the problem.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to look at the effects of teaching material and their effective usage in improving teaching and learning in a few selected schools in Offa local government Kwara State.

The Study’s Specific Objectives

The research will be used to:

  1. To determine whether or not teaching materials are available at the secondary school level.
  2. To determine the extent to which instructional materials are used in secondary schools.
  3. To see how the usage of visual aids affects pupils’ performance in Kware State’s Offa local government.
  4. To see if the learning environment has an impact on students’ performance in Kware State’s Offa local government.
  5. To define some guiding principles for achieving the best possible learning outcomes in secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can the availability of teaching materials be determined at secondary school level?
  2. What is the extent to which teaching materials are used in secondary schools?
  3. How can the usage of visual aids affects students performance in Offa local government Kware State?
  4. How can the learning environment have impact on students’ performance in Kware State’s Offa local government?
  5. What are the guiding principles for achieving the best possible learning outcomes in secondary school?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Eminent educational academics have expressed worry about the state of teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools, and several studies have been conducted to improve the teaching and learning situation. Despite this, there is a need to focus on the usage of teaching materials in the classroom, which is the focus of this research. Nonetheless, the significance of this research is to increase massively teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools via the use of teaching materials, in order to produce better and long-term results in the near future.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the following secondary schools in Offa local government Kware State:

  1. Ube Jss Babalola Memorial (Cac) Grammar School Odo-Owa
  2. Oyeleke Memmorial College
  3. Hamdalat International School
  4. Gbagba Junior Secondary School Ilorin.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study is subjected to restriction and obstacles that accompany every research activity that make use of questionnaire like; non-compliance of certain respondents and inadequate information regarding the topic under inquiry. Finally, money and time limits were two of the problems that severely limited the scope of our study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials:

Print and non-print objects meant to convey information to pupils throughout the educational process are referred to as instructional materials. Kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, photos, recordings, slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks, and electronic media, including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD-ROMs, and online services, are examples of instructional materials.

Teaching:

Teaching is the act of transferring knowledge/skill to a person/learner on a certain subject.

Learning:

Learning is a somewhat permanent change in behavior brought about by previous experiences. It may also be defined as the process of gaining information or skills. It’s sometimes referred to as ‘inclination.’

Teacher:

This is the individual who imparts knowledge to a student in order for them to acquire abilities.

Affect:

These are the mitigating elements that interrupted the smooth and proper running of an activity.

Schools:

These are institutions for teaching youngsters /learners or delivering instruction. It may also be defined as a location where a student receives formal education.

Sustainable Development:

This is development that satisfies current demands without jeopardizing future generations’ ability to satisfy their own.


The Impact Of Teaching Materials In Nigerian Schools For Improving Teaching And Learning Situations


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The Impact Of Teaching Materials In Nigerian Schools For Improving Teaching And Learning Situations


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Frequently Asked Questions


How do instructional materials affect student achievement?

Studies have shown that the use of instructional materials have improved achievement (George, 2008) and Nwagbo (2006). Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students.

Are instructional materials indispensable factor in a teaching learning process?

Esu (2004) added that instructional materials are indispensable factor in a teaching learning process. Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students.

Are instructional materials useful in teaching accounting subject in secondary education?

Research Purpose: The usefulness of instructional materials in teaching-accounting subject in secondary education has been identified as a priority globally including in Nigeria.

Does the teacher’s method of teaching contribute to poor performance?

According to Nwagbo (2001), a number of factors have been identified as contributing to the non-acquisition of skills by secondary school students which invariably lead to poor performance and one of the factors is the teacher 14 fvariable, that is, the teachers’ method of teaching. 

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