Primary School Pupil Participation In Sports And Its Influence On Teaching And Learning

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Primary School Pupil Participation In Sports And Its Influence On Teaching And Learning


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State. The study was specifically set to find out the extent pupils participate in sports activities in primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils mental healthiness; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils cognitive development; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils academic development; and find out whether there is a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and effective teaching/learning primary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and the effective teaching/learning primary in school. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers and parents should work cooperatively together for benefit of all students on sports participation. And sports participation should be made compulsory for every school student except on medical grounds. Principals must also ensure this To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Sports started with the beginning of life and it is used for different purposes in time. Sports are the activities involving power and skills, competition, strategy, chance and engaged in for the enjoyment, satisfaction and personal gain (such as income) of the participant, and others (e.g., spectators), including organized and recreational sports, as well as sports as entertainment (Ocal, 2006). Students’ engagement in sports is known to contribute to the developmental outcomes for a healthy lifestyle, where they learn about social and cognitive skills (Choi et al, 2014).More broadly, engagement in sports is also recognized to contribute a range of positive outcomes, specifically; physical and mental, social wellbeing, cognitive and academic performance(Bailey et al, 2013). In order for school children to achieve such performance, it is recognized that physical education in schools is an ideal vehicle to promote sports due to its availability to all young people.Whilst teachers also have opportunity to integrate into the overall education process (Telford et al 2012). The success in physical education may give confidence and assurance in the academic realm if the confidence is treated in a supportive and encouraging ways at the secondary stage; it should be made more applicable and attractive to students in order to give physical education a better status within the educational system. The tailoring of the physical education curriculum and programmes to meet the student needs can do much to help the accomplishment of the aims of physical education within the educational system, but it can also aid the perspectives which are presented to society in general (Kanan, 2006)

The Educationists and social scientists have been working since to determine the relationship between sports and education. The research reveals a positive impact of sports and physical activities on education; and also in the academic enhancement of its participants, and a far-famed saying ‘Sound mind in a sound body’ referring to the potential quality of sports in the intellectual development of its participants seems to be endorsed. The research studies substantiate a positive relation between sports participation and mental health. It has been found that sports and physical activities raise the level of alertness.

Sports nature is grounded in movement,games, and physical education which itself to a high rate of teacher-student interactions. The nature of these interactions may be a leading factor in a student’s perception of sports. Sport activities ameliorate the working capacity of crucial body systems and improve the degree of alertness among participants. Sports activities not only leave a positive impact on mood, but also increase mental alertness (Hills, 1998) and it is quite apparent that physically and mentally alert students always perform better, achieve more (Taras, 2005) and like to remain present in their classes. It has been noticed that sportsmen orwomen show better results in Maths, English,(Broh, 2002), and science subjects (Nelson, 2006).

Din (2006) conducted a study to ascertain the effects of sports activities on academic development of its participants in high schools of rural areas. The role of sport participation on the academic performance of students has been a topic of debate for decades. Supporters of sport programs argue that sport participation improves students’ academic performance. The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority for educators. It is meant for making a difference locally, regionally, nationally and globally. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect students’ quality of academic achievement. These factors may be termed as; student factors, family factors, school environment and peer influence (Crosnoe, Johnson & Elder, 2004). Students’ grades keeps them in school, raises their educational aspirations, increased students’ overall interest and commitment to schooling as well as their engagement in more student-teacher relationship, more positive attitudes about schooling, and more parent-school relationship. In previous years, researchers have conducted several studies to know the relationship of secondary school sports participation on academics performance but Broh (2002) said little evidences are present on this topic.

It is evident that physical education has been associated with a variety of health benefits in both adults and children. Being physically fit reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity ( Hillman et al., 2008) and improves psychological variables including depressions, anxiety and stress (Eveland-Seyers et al., 2009). In addition to the health analysis of physical fitness a growing body of literature has linked sport, physical activities with improved brain function, cognition, and academic performance (Davis et al., 2007 Tomporowski et al., 2008, Shelton, 2009).The compatibility of sports and academics still leaves a greater number of the general public with a considerable amount of skeptics. While some people question the position of sports in educational programmes,others attribute poor performance in academics to sport participation.

Extracurricular activities including school sports are sometimes referred to as students’ activities or co-curricular activities.Sports play very important roles in educational institutions in virtually all parts of the world, and the contribution of sports to the educational process in institutions cannot be overemphasized (Ongong’a, Okwara, &Okello, 2010). School sport is part of the educational process formed by the combination of the competitive characteristic of sports and the educational characteristic of physical education. School sport activities support and directs the academic mission of schools and it is more than an extension of a good educational programmes (Öcal, 2006).Sports means athletic activities involving physical exertion and skill of the athlete in its performance within the context of formal rules of behavior (Olumba, 2009). The athlete engages in the activity for pleasure, attainment of physical, mental, social health and for enjoyment of other intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. Based on the aforementioned, this study seek to examine primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The prevalent fear ravaging the minds of majority of the general public is that participation hinders the success of their wards, in the entire process of teaching and learning at schools. This misconception was based on their assumption that children who participate in sports can never do well at school. Davis and Cooper (2004) observed that the most common point of attack against organized athletic activities in school is that most people believe that sports have no positive relationship with academics.Some parents or guardians for obvious reasons associated sports with mischievous behaviors and juvenile delinquency (Thorlindson and Bernburg, 2006). Factors which contribute to students’ dropout from school emanate from parents and guardians, such as inadequate financial support and bad attitude towards their wards’ education. Those emanating from students are violating the school rules and regulations, frustration due to failure to study hard and failing in examinations. The factors emanating from the administrative and managerial processes are not even considered as serious factors capable of terminating academic career of children as participating in sports is being considered.(Bowen, Rose,Power andGlennie, (2008). Many researchers have investigated sports participation and its influence on academic performance although the results are conflicting (Feldman and Matjasko, 2005).According to Broh (2002), participation in sports activities in general, is associated with an improved, higher educational aspiration, increased college attendance, and reduced absenteeism.

In most schools, principals fail to recognize the existence of the games masters where they exist hence, misappropriating funds allocated for sports in the school interscholastic competitions. As a result, students are being exploited by giving them only plastic cups as prizes during competitions instead of concrete items. Other factors include unavailability of sports facilities and equipment in schools due to inadequate provision of funds. Most schools do not acquire enough land that will accommodate sports facilities and those old schools who have enough land and adequate sports facilities have shared areas of land meant for volley ball court and some other related activities for farming activities among teachers. It is regrettable that the only sports facility that is still maintaining its position in schools is the football field. However, from personal observation and experience, only one or probably two out of ten schools can boast of buying one football (soccer ball) for their students in two years.It is in the light of addressing these odds that the researcher decided to investigate the relationship between sports and academics.

While Akpe (1991) established that students who participate in sports have high cognitive domain and perform better academically than those who do not participate. Ogu (2002) failed to produce reliable results in that he used only respondents who participate in sports. The fact that regular physical activities as noted by Bauman, (2004) have mental and social health benefits as the basis of achieving academic excellence is still like a fantasy to the parents especially those in Ogun State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out the extent pupils participate in sports activities in primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State.
  2. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils mental healthiness.
  3. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils cognitive development.
  4. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils academic development.
  5. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and effective teaching/learning primary school.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent pupils participate in sports activities in primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils mental healthiness?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils cognitive development?
  4. Is there is significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils academic development?
  5. Is there a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and effective teaching/learning primary school?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant positive relationship between pupils participation in sports and the effective teaching/learning primary school.
  • Ha: There is a significant positive relationship between pupils participation in sports and the effective teaching/learning primary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of great significance because it will enable the government to understand the health benefits of sports and making provisions adequately of such activities e.g. equipment, facilities, as well as conducive environment for its practicability. For instance, track and field events, standardized dimensioned football pitch, basketball court, badminton, handball court, etc.

It will equally assist school authorities and teachers to understand the significance of maintaining school sporting equipment to the betterment of learning, social and mental well-being.

Furthermore, it will help in changing the attitude of sports personnel in school by making sports interesting to parents, communities, organizations, and philanthropists to contribute their own quota so as to complement or supplement students’ participation in sports.

Consequently, this research project will be of benefit to other research in Ogun State related to sports and academics, also to investigate other areas and variables that the study may not have covered and which could be useful in development of other educational systems.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning. Geographically, the study will be conducted in some selected primary schools in Sagamu local government area of Ogun State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Influence:

If someone has influence, they have power to change how things develop or how people behave.

Sport:

It is an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or the others for entertainment.

Participation:

This is the action in taking part in something; it is the act of sharing in activities of a group.

Student:

A formal learner or one who studies at school in order to learn and acquire skills that will help them grow into responsible being in the society.

Academic Performance:

Relating to education especially in a school setting in order to determine how good, fair and poor a student is doing at the end of a term, semester or session after conducting a test or an examination.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine primary school pupil participation in sports and its influence on teaching and learning in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State. The study is was specifically carried out to find out the extent pupils participate in sports activities in primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils mental healthiness; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils cognitive development; find out whether there is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils academic development; and find out whether there is a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and effective teaching/learning primary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers of some selected primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The pupils adequately participate in sports activities in primary schools in Sagamu Local Government of Ogun State.
  2. There is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils mental healthiness.
  3. There is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils cognitive development.
  4. There is a significant relationship between participation in sports and pupils academic development
  5. There is a significant relationship between pupils participation in sports and effective teaching/learning primary school.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Educational programs about sports should be provided for students’ through the educational system to bring about positive academic performance.
  2. Teachers and parents should work cooperatively together for benefit of all students on sports participation.
  3. Sports participation should be made compulsory for every school student except on medical grounds. Principals must also ensure this.

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