The Effect Of Non-Availability Of Qualified Teachers In The Teaching And Learning Of Christian Religious Knowledge

Project And Seminar Material On Christian Religious Studies

The Effect Of Non-Availability Of Qualified Teachers In The Teaching And Learning Of Christian Religious Knowledge (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching and learning of christian religious knowledge using Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to identify the rate of non -availability of junior secondary teachers to teach Christian religious studies in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state, identify the effect of the non-availability of Christian religious teachers in junior secondary school on the academic performance of students on the subject, and identify and measure any other effect the non-availability of junior secondary school teachers in Christian religious studies in having on the students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the rate or extent of shortage of qualified Christian religious teachers in junior secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area is high. The study also revealed that the extent junior secondary students in Shomolu Local Government affected by the shortage of Christian religious teachers is high. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide adequate funding for the academics programmers and activities, and provide the necessary materials enough and qualified manpower for academics in the state and the country in general. Give enough time and encouragement to academics teacher in allowing them to attend conferences, seminars and workshops organized by academics association of Nigeria and other conference organized in educational sector. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Christian Religious Studies (CRS) forms part of the basic national curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools this may be a surprising fact but it has come up to be the truth and nothing but the truth. Some individuals have linked religious with social habituation and they have also gone a long way to argue that it has no consign in either a working environment or a schools. At the same time, others believe CRS have to be about fostering students within a meticulous religious faith system.

Over the years, CRS has actively been known to be a strong promoter of the values of genuineness fairness, honesty, deference for all and care of the environment CR S consign specific emphasis on children appreciating themselves and others, it teaches us the real responsibility of family and the community in religious principle and action, the contentment of diversity in society through of acknowledgment of their similarities and differences, and individual custodianship on earth. CRS is also acquainted with shilling environment of the general public, including transformations in religious practice and appearance and the authority of religion in the neighborhood, homes, state and in the universal society.

The importance of teachers in teaching CRS cannot be overstressed. This is because teachers play a number of roles. Specifically, teachers have been referred to by Oyedeji (1998) as agents of innovation. For meaningful innovations, adequate availability of teachers’ is very important. The complexity arises as a result of several factors which include determination of what effective teachers are: Teachers are expected to fulfill a variety of roles, some common to all teachers, others uniquely related to certain kinds of environment of students or subject matter. Added to this, is the fact that teacher education involves the training of professionals who will educate students in the future despite the complexity in the field of teacher education. One cannot overemphasize the importance of academic training of teachers of all categories. This is because the efficiency of any institution depends on the academic competence of the teaching staff since no educational system can- ri se above the quality of its teacher (FGN, 1981 P.38). Teachers are important in any educational system. This is because the quality of teachers in any educational system determines to a great extent the quality of the system itself. Professional teachers in particular are crucial to the formulation and successful implementation to education policies in any country. This has explained why our National Policy on Education N.P.E. (2004) stressed the need to accord teacher education a prominent place in educational planning. The policy further maintained that among other things, the goal of teacher-education should be:

  • To produce highly motivated conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system.
  • To provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment (N.P.E; 20O4).

To Peters (1977), quality is the basic and indispensable feature of a thing, which differentiates it from other things. The presence of that characteristic feature to a high degree marks it out as a “thing of high quality” on the other hand, the absence or the thing to a low quality status. For example, the characteristic of a high quality teacher relates to those attributes that enhance the fitness and efficiency of that teacher in performing the duties that are associated with teaching CRS. That is, a high quality CRS teacher is one who can competently achieve the objectives of teaching CRS in our schools. At this point it will be pertinent to state that a professional CRS teacher is a professionally prepared CRS teacher in contents and methods of teaching Christian Religious Studies, thereby acquiring a professional degree in education with special reference to any of the CRS subject. For example, a professional university degree teacher is expected to have B.Sc. (Rons) with a Post-Graduate Diploma in Religious Studies Any other teacher with qualifications outside the above one can be categorized as a non-professional CRS teacher.

There is greater demand for highly creative and innovative teachers in Nigeria today who can lead students onto paths of meaningful learning. An effective and efficient teacher is also one of the necessary factors to effective instruction in all subjects including Christian religious studies. Adequate supply of effective and efficient teachers to teach on senior and junior secondary has been one of the major reoccurring problems in the Nigerian educational sector. Other problems include the outdated nature of the curriculum, controversial nature of the subjects and poor methods of instruction. Religious studies lay emphasis on factual examination oriented approach and religious dogmas. According to WesterHoff (1978), though the name Religious Studies has been used most frequently, there is no complete or consistent agreement on what the word mean or what it refers to. Today, there is less concurrence than ever before. Scott (1980) says that no consensus exists today on the nature, scope and role of Religious Studies. The above named scholar believe that current search to identify revolves around different usage of key terms like Religious Education, Religious Knowledge, Religious and Moral Instruction. Other problem is that since Religion deals with values, judgments and feelings, everyone in the society will agree with it. The implications of the above is that the controversial nature of the subject, lack of consistent linguistic discourse and the unstable pattern of conversation currently going on in the field have contributed to making the subject difficult and technical.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching of Christian Religious Studies in Schools has been of positive or negative impact to the teaching and learning process. Some problems has been identified to be the possible cause.
It was revealed that there had been a serious reduction in the enrolment of students in the subject at secondary schools level and tertiary institution of learning due to the fact that some teachers acquired their certificate through various means. In most educational institutions, teachers that are not trained to teach subjects such as CRS are made to do so thereby not giving the students the required training and knowledge about that particular subject.

Sofowora (2002) also states that not all media materials that are available are technically suitable for use in teaching. He emphasized the need for training teachers in the art and craft of design selection production and use of appropriate needs. The required skills in the area mentioned above can only be acquired through Educational Technology. One of the major concerns of Educational Technology is the quest for effective instruction which is reflected in its definition.

The achievement of effective and efficient teaching and learning in schools has been one of the perennial problems in education. However, the problems facing the quality and adequacy of the availability of manpower for the effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies has generated a lot of concern among scholars such as Alaba (2008); and Adeyemi and Aviomoh (2003). In Nigeria, the shortage of qualified teachers has been reported (Adeyemi and Aviomoh, 2003). These shortages have been attributed to the low salaries and social prestige given to teachers (Aghenta, 2001). Also, the free education policy of the Lagos State government tends to have compounded the problems in secondary schools perhaps as a result of insufficient funds to employ adequate teachers and to run the schools. This problem is believed to have effect on students’ performance in the subject. For instance, in spite of the acknowledgement of the importance of Christian Religious Studies to the society and laying of solid foundation for students, the performance of students in subject shows that this has not been properly achieved.

Based on the highlighted problems, this study will focus on the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching anti learning of Christian religious studies in junior secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching and learning of Christian religious knowledge. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the rate of non -availability of junior secondary teachers to teach Christian religious studies in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state.
  2. Identify the effect of the non-availability of Christian religious teachers in junior secondary school on the academic performance of students on the subject.
  3. Identify and measure any other effect the non-availability of junior secondary school teachers in Christian religious studies in having on the students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following assumptions stand as research questions of the study:

  1. What is the rate or extent of shortage of qualified Christian religious teachers in junior secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent does this shortage of Christian religious teachers affect junior secondary school student’s performance in the subject?
  3. To what further extent are junior secondary students in Shomolu Local Government affected by the shortage of Christian religious teachers?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study.

  • Ho: Inadequacy of qualified Christian Religious Studies teachers will not affect effective teaching of the subject in Lagos State.
  • Ha: Inadequacy of qualified Christian Religious Studies teachers will affect effective teaching of the subject in Lagos State.

1.6 Significance of Study

This research will be beneficial to both teachers and students who are interested in learning more about the elements that influence a student’s academic performance. Understanding classroom environment variables will assist teachers to focus their professional development on areas that will improve student accomplishment. Understanding the value of teachers and their influence on student performance can aid secondary school administrators in retaining teachers and ensuring that their lessons are student-centered. The outcomes of the study are intended to aid physics teachers in teaching physics to improve students’ performance by guiding school management committees to choose school teachers who have the proper combination of diverse teacher qualities. This study will add to the body of knowledge in the field of entrepreneurship education by building an intention model that will aid academics in doing more research in related fields.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching and learning of Christian religious knowledge. The study will be delimited to Shomolu Local Government , Lagos State/


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Non-Availability:

The state of not being available, free, or able to be used.

Qualified:

Officially recognized as being trained to perform a particular job; certified.

Teacher:

A person who teaches, especially in a school.

Teaching:

The occupation, profession, or work of a teacher.

Learning:

The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.

Christian:

Relating to or professing Christianity or its teachings.

Religious:

Relating to or believing in a religion.

Studies:

The devotion of time and attention to gaining knowledge of an academic subject, especially by means of books.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching and learning of christian religious knowledge using Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of non-availability of qualified teachers in the teaching and learning of christian religious knowledge using Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to identify the rate of non -availability of junior secondary teachers to teach Christian religious studies in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state, identify the effect of the non-availability of Christian religious teachers in junior secondary school on the academic performance of students on the subject, and identify and measure any other effect the non-availability of junior secondary school teachers in Christian religious studies in having on the students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The rate or extent of shortage of qualified Christian religious teachers in junior secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area is high.
  2. The extent this shortage of Christian religious teachers affect junior secondary school student’s performance in the subject is high.
  3. The extent junior secondary students in Shomolu Local Government affected by the shortage of Christian religious teachers is high.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher recommended that;

  1. Government should provide adequate funding for the academics programmers and activities, and provide the necessary materials enough and qualified manpower for academics in the state and the country in general. Give enough time and encouragement to academics teacher in allowing them to attend conferences, seminars and workshops organized by academics association of Nigeria and other conference organized in educational sector.
  2. In hiring effective teachers, school management should not look only at qualifications of candidates’ teachers. There are various factors that can be considered, such as the experience, age, gender, attitudes and social behaviour of teachers that may holistically attribute to students’ academic achievement.

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