The Effect Of Class Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry In Public Senior Secondary Schools In Enugu State

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

The Effect Of Class Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry In Public Senior Secondary Schools In Enugu State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government, Enugu State. Specifically the study was set to ascertain whether class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State, ascertain whether class size influences students’ learning outcome in chemistry, determine whether over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry, and determine whether there is a significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of chemistry teachers of some selected public senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 39 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State. Furthermore, the study also revealed that over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended that educational planners should ensure that with an increase in student’ population, arrangements should be made for commensurate increase in infrastructure and qualified teachers. This will reduce class size, enable adequate teachers’ workload and encourage student-centered learning. This will go a long way to improve the quality of teaching, learning and performance. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Globally, science has been embraced as driver of the new world and catalyst of civilization of any country. Science has been described as a discipline that is unique with beautiful qualities that branded it with systematic approach through which knowledge is sought after and collected. For every nation to benefits immensely and effectively from the abundant opportunity of science, there is need for substantial level of scientific literacy among the citizen. Pember & Humbe (2009) defined science as a process of teaching or training especially, in school to improve one’s knowledge about environment and to develop one’s skill of systematic inquiry as well as natural attitudinal characteristics. Science plays important roles in the society because it relates to our daily life and career. Both the process and product of science are acquired through education and this is specialized type of education such as science education. No country can be globally recognized without talking about its scientific advancements. The importance of science in our society made the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the Federal Ministry of Education to introduce science subjects in the nation’s secondary school curriculum. Chemistry is one of such subjects introduced.

Chemistry occupies a unique position among various science subjects offered at the senior secondary school level. The study of Chemistry involves pursuit of truth, a process that instills diligence, patience and objectivity in learners (Opara & Waswa, 2013). Chemistry learning develops the scientific habits in students, which are transferable to other areas of life. Such habits involve non-reliance on superstition, use of critical thinking and respect for other people’s opinion (Yunus & Ali, 2012). Chemistry as a science is a fundamental requirement for most core science based courses (Oloyede, 2010). Improving students’ academic achievement in Chemistry has been the concern and the reason for most educational research and programmes. In addition to the students’ qualities, other determinants such as home factors, school variables, and teacher qualities have been found to impact on students’ academic achievement, either positively or negatively. Class size is one of the school variables that determine how effectively students learn.

There is therefore the need to adopt efficient teaching and learning strategies that will enhance better achievement and retention of the subject matter by students. Michael (2010) defined class size as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible for during a school year. The class size could be large or small. Class size is akin to the administrative element of ‘span of control’, which is the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise. It is an administrative measure signifying the number of students for whom a teacher is responsible during the school year. Adeyemi (2008) described class size as an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school.

The teacher who is the classroom manager should therefore, have the number of students he/she can effectively control, supervise and teach at any given period. It is often perceived that smaller classes have less number of disruptions thereby engendering better student/teacher engagement and better student learning than larger classes. Adding more students to a class increases the number of disruptions and decreases the amount of time during which learning can take place because the teacher spends time dealing with these students that cause disruptions. Meanwhile, Hattie (2009) argued that not all interactions between student and teacher will result in improved learning; rather effective interaction is what is needed.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The national policy on education revised in 2010 stipulates that the maximum teacher –student ratio is one teacher is to thirty students. The obvious reason for this standard is to ensure that the teacher not only controls the class but also to ensure that he understands the learning capabilities of each of the learner in the classroom. Ozochi (2008) affirms that there is a limit to which a teacher can effectively control, anything more than that according to him will affect the school objectives.

However, in most of our secondary schools today the teacher –student ration has gone far beyond the stipulation of the national policy on education. Students stay more than fifty in each class, seating arrangement altered, thereby making teaching and learning difficult. Educational planners in Nigeria have attributed the over bloated class size due to the explosion of the population of children of school age. Recently the Enugu State Government through her agently spliced most of the secondary schools located within the metropolis in order perpherps to expel the agony of overcrowded classroom.

Science, like all other natural science is an activity based subject, a situation whereby the learner is exposed mainly to the practical learning process under the guide and supervision of a teacher. Maduagwu et al (1998) opines that effectiveness of a classroom management results when the teacher and student achieve the purpose of which either are together in a class under an overcrowded classroom environment like what obtains in most of our schools today it becomes pertinent to ask, how effective is teaching and learning particularly in subject area that requires close monitoring of the learner by the teacher.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State.
  2. Ascertain whether class size influences students’ learning outcome in chemistry.
  3. Determine whether over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry.
  4. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Does class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State?
  2. Does class size influences students’ learning outcome in chemistry?
  3. Does over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry?
  4. Is there any significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study when completed would enable the teacher to know the dangers associated with over-crowded classroom. It would assist the government and education planners on recruitment and supervision of teachers bearing in mind the expected teacher-learner ratio. The study will assist in providing a guide in the realization of one of the core objectives of Nigeria education which is to make Nigeria one of the technological advanced countries in the world.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State. Geographically, this study will be delimited to some selected public senior secondary schools in Enugu State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Class size refers to the number of students a teacher faces during a given period of instruction. Dozens of studies on class-size reduction demonstrate its positive impact on student performance, though a smaller number of studies attempt to cast doubt on the connection between class size and student learning.
Academic Performance: How well or badly students do in studies at school.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government, Enugu State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government, Enugu State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State, ascertain whether class size influences students’ learning outcome in chemistry, determine whether over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry, and determine whether there is a significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were chemistry teachers of some selected public senior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Class size influences effective teaching and learning of chemistry in public senior secondary schools in Enugu State.
  2. Class size influences students’ learning outcome in chemistry.
  3. Over crowded class size affects students concentration during the teaching and learning of chemistry.
  4. There is a significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in chemistry.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Educational planners should ensure that with an increase in student’ population, arrangements should be made for commensurate increase in infrastructure and qualified teachers. This will reduce class size, enable adequate teachers’ workload and encourage student-centered learning. This will go a long way to improve the quality of teaching, learning and performance.
  2. The Ministry of Education, policy makers, parent – teachers association, old boys/students association and other nongovernmental organizations, corporate bodies and religious organizations should contribute respectively to renovate dilapidated classrooms, build more classrooms to contain the growing enrolments in the schools and provide schools with the facilities they need to make teaching and learning easier and effective.
  3. Where the class size cannot be reduced in a given time due to challenges beyond the control of the school authorities, it is recommended that teachers and management of the school should employ rotational students’ group formation and study. These groups could identify common challenges and present it to teachers for support.

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