A Survey On The Influence Of Field Trip In Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary School

Biology Education Project Material

A Survey On The Influence Of Field Trip In Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary School


Abstract


The study investigated the influence of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. Survey design was used for the study. The sample size was one hundred (100) senior secondary school II (SS2) students. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire made up of 15 items. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the instruments using crombach alpha. The findings revealed that teachers use field trip once a year and that some teachers do not use it all in teaching and learning of biology. The findings also revealed among others that field trip is an effective method of teaching since it helps students acquire useful knowledge while having fun and relaxation at the same time. The researcher recommended that extensive field trip should be organized by schools so as to expose the students to events outside the classroom.
Keywords: Field Trip, Teaching, Learning, Biology


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Field trips are an important part of standards-based classroom instruction; they are not a distinct activity, but rather a natural extension of classroom instruction. According to Awotua-Efebo (2009), field work is a type of instructional medium used today, because an instructional medium is “anything (materials and equipment) that enables the teacher to communicate his or her ideas effectively to the students, such that at the conclusion of the instruction, the student can do what the teacher stated in the objectives.” Real things (specimens, models, trips, field work, etc. ), projected or non-projected pictures, prints or non-prints, etc.

Essentially, a biology field trip is seen as a supplement to successful teaching, not as the focal point. Awotua-Efebo (2009) claimed that the goal should be successful teaching, which she described as “getting the material (message) over in a teaching that accomplishes the targeted objectives.” Additionally, he stated that if, at the conclusion of instruction, the student accomplishes what the teacher desired via the assessment process, then successful teaching occurred.

Additionally, secondary school biology field trips were supposed to increase student learning experiences by engagement with resource persons and the natural environment. These centers were intended to offer more reliable sources of information than the school, particularly given that learning outside the classroom strives to guarantee that all young people have access to high-quality outdoor learning activities (James, 2015). Additionally, it aimed to boost academic performance, build skills, and foster interdependence in a growing variety of situations, while also allowing for the acceptance of appropriate degrees of risk. However, many critics and observers have said that the whole process is a sham and a waste of time and energy that does little to improve students’ performance in Biology.

Rickinson (2004), on the other hand, said that field trips may result in life-changing choices. It may assist in broadening horizons, both physically and educationally, and provides an excellent opportunity for personal growth, including the development of independence, self-esteem, self-confidence, and teamwork. These potentially life-changing prospects for biologists must be recognized and fostered. While attention is frequently focused on pressures and demands, field activities can be extremely effective at fostering mutual understanding between teachers and students, thereby increasing the effectiveness of learning and providing motivation that transfers or persists after the field experience. S. Hillcox (2003). With this in mind, this research will examine the effect of field trip studies on students’ academic performance in biology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A field trip is a critical component of learning since it bolsters the effectiveness of teaching and learning processes. At times, this part of teaching may be ineffective owing to a lack of resources directed in that way, since it requires significant financing (Helomu, 2016). It’s possible that the majority of biology teachers have no idea where to take their students on a trip. Finally, although several research have been conducted on the impact of field trips on biology students, not a single study has been conducted on the influence of field trips on the performance of biology students in Aba, Abia state. As a result, this research fills the gap.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the influence of field trip on students academic performance in biology. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out the extent biology teachers do use field trips in teaching and learning of biology.
  2. Ascertain the importance of field-trips in teaching and learning of biology.
  3. Identify the problems hindering the use of field-trips in teaching and learning of Biology.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. To what extent do biology teachers use field trips in teaching and learning of biology
  2. What is the importance of field-trips in teaching and learning of biology?
  3. What are the problems hindering the use of field-trips in teaching and learning of Biology?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Field trip has no positive influence on students academic performance in biology.
  • Ha: Field trip has a positive influence on students academic performance in biology.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study on the impact of field trip studies on students academic performance in biology in the sense that it will enable the government to fund field trip so as to enable the students learn since biology is more practical than theory; more also since students cannot easily forget the things they see, (take for instance “movie”)such that they can tell you from the beginning to the end without forgetting anything the same thing applies to theory in class and field trip which will encourage and help them learn. The study will also enable the government in recruiting and also train effective biology teachers. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the impact of field trip studies on students academic performance in biology. However, the study will further ascertain whether field trip helps to enhance students comprehension of biology subject in secondary schools, ascertain whether field trip ignites students interest in biology subject in secondary schools, and ascertain whether field trip improves students’ academic performance in biology subject in secondary schools.

The study will therefore be delimited to some senior secondary schools in Aba, Abia State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact / Effect:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Field Trip:

Or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.

Performance / Achievement:

A thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of field trip on students academic performance in biology using some selected senior secondary schools in Aba, Abia State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of field trip on students academic performance in biology using some selected senior secondary schools in Aba, Abia State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the extent biology teachers do use field trips in teaching and learning of biology, ascertain the importance of field-trips in teaching and learning of biology, and identify the problems hindering the use of field-trips in teaching and learning of Biology.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were SS2 students of four selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Teachers do not make use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology. Some teachers make use of field trips once a year.
  2. Field trip is important in teaching and learning of biology.
  3. Problems hindering the use of field trips include limitation of funds, time constraints, transportation problems, difficulty in obtaining parental permission.

5.4 Recommendation

With regard to the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that;

  1. Extensive field trips should be organized by schools so as to expose the students to events outside the classroom.
  2. Government should provide funds for schools for regular field trips
  3. PTA should assist the school in providing funds for field trips.

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