Innovative Techniques Of Teaching And Learning Business Education In Secondary School

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Innovative Techniques Of Teaching And Learning Business Education In Secondary School


Abstract


The study attempted to examine innovative techniques of teaching and learning business education in secondary school. The purpose of the study was specifically top examine the extent of availability, functionality and utilization of innovative techniques in secondary schools. The population used for the study was made up of the school principle and Business Education Teachers of five Schools where business education is offered at both Junior and senior secondary school level. All the schools used are public secondary schools. A total of 50 respondents where used. Three research questions where formulated to guide the study. For the analysis of the data analyzed, the following finding made were that innovative techniques needed for teaching business education at the secondary school are grossly inadequate in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The few available ones are obsolete and not functional. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the government:- federal, State and Local Government should make available basic resources for teaching and learning business education in secondary school where business course are offered so as to make the acquisition of business skill more permanent on the learners.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The growth and development of any nation is hinged on the level of education attained by its citizens. In other words, education is the bridge to the development of any nation. Education is the key for positive change in the society because of its far reaching effects on growth and development in all sectors of the economy. It’s in stressing the importance of education to man that Peters (2010) alluded that an educated man is: (1) one whose form of life is exhibited in his conduct, the activities to which he is committed, his judgments and feelings is thought to be desirable. (2) One who in whatever he/she is trained to do he/she must have knowledge, not just knack, and an understanding of principles. His/her form of life must also exhibit some mastery of forms of thought and awareness which are not harnessed purely to utilitarian or vocational purposes or completely confined to one mode. (3) One whose knowledge and understanding must not be inert either in the sense that they make no difference to his general view of the world, his actions within it and reactions to it or in the sense that they involve no concern for the standards immanent in forms of thought and awareness, as well as the ability to attain them. In line with the above, business education, according to Popham, Schrag and Blocklus (1971) is an educational programme that prepares students for entry into and advancement in jobs within business. Popham et al also asserted that business education prepares students to handle their own business affairs and to function intelligently as consumers and citizens in a business economy. Similarly, Njoku (2006) highlighted the objectives of business education at the tertiary level of education as: (1) to empower students with desirable skills, knowledge and value to perform specific functions so as to become self reliant. (2) To help students appreciate the world around them and contribute maximally to the social and economic development of the nation. (3). To empower student in such a way that the students will develop intellectual capability that would help them make informed decisions in all sphere of life. (4) To help students become judicious spenders and develop proper values for the achievement of healthy living and growth of the nation. (6) To understand the political framework of a nation so that students can contribute to the national and economic development of the nation. However, authors like Essia (2012) and Nwazor (2012) have decried the failure of the education offered in tertiary institutions especially in the business education programmes to prepare students and graduates for real life situations. In consonance, Lioyde and Tokunbo (2002) had noted that the cause of increased rate of unemployment amongst university graduates in Nigeria is manifested in lack of functional education that will bring about the training of the abundant human resources in Nigeria to be creative, innovative and business opportunity seekers that will transform opportunities and material resources into goods and services. These views are accentuated by the number of graduates in Nigeria, especially those from the business education programmes who have failed to gain employment in companies in the business sector of the country.

Ohiwerei (2009) specifically noted that the inability of business education graduates to gain employment in variouscooperate bodies and organizations resulted from incompetence which is traceable to the quality of certificate issued to business education graduates, shortages of business education teachers, lack of maintenance of equipment, inaccessibility of teaching facilities, our teachers and students interest, inadequate textbooks and workbooks and other business teaching materials and Nigerian certificate centered mentality. Ohiwerei further alluded that the over-bearing emphasis placed on paper qualification is the reason for the mismatch between the quality of business education graduates and their employability in the real world of business. Similarly, Osunde and Omoruyi (2004) noted that the quality of the teaching personnel in the educational institution has been a contributing factor in the decline in quality of graduates produced for the business education programme. The situation is not helped by the lack of faith of most business organizations especially the banking sector who mostly employ Nigerian graduates from tertiary institutions abroad (Sokunbi, 2006). It is in light of the above, that the paper seeks to determine strategies that will be effective in educating and training business education graduates from tertiary institutions in Nigeria for co-operate governance. The authors believe that finding remediating strategies for improving the quality of business education graduates for cooperate governance will automatically improve the capacity of adoption of the business education graduates in cooperate organizations in the country.
In order to have a describable change in the learner, good teaching must take place and to bring about good teaching, the teacher should be able to convey their message in the simplest, most convincing and practical way to the learner using innovative techniques.

These innovative techniques are the instructional materials used in teaching and learning. The instructional to make teaching easy and practical for the learners to understand the subject.

These objects according to Umoh-Mac and Nkume (1998) are regarded as instructional materials. They enhance real and meaningful teaching and learning. Appropriate instructional materials are imperative for implementing good quality education programmes. Unless adequate and quantity facilities and superlative human resources are available, quality of the programme will be reduced and learning-will be deterred.

Material for teaching business subject range from the common textbooks to more sophisticated machines, chalkboards real ,objects or their representatives which the teacher use to communicate effectively with the students. These materials make learning more permanent and develop continuity of thought among the learner. Teaching materials and aids for the acquisition of required skill for business Education should be on regular supply to school where Business Education subject are taught.

According to Umoh-Mac Nkume (1998) many researches on the availability of available resource carried out in Nigeria, in schools offering Business Education programme often revealed the presence of inadequate training facilities in the schools.

They further stressed that even the few available ones are not being maintained. There is poor storage facilities for them and so they become non-functional.

Obi and Akume (2001) warned that any school that any school that desire to offer modern Business Education programme must include in its programme, a thorough training in the use of thee appliances.

Also to give such training the school must be equipped with appliances with which it intend to give instructions. To take the point further, they stated that for the teaching process to effectively taken place generally, both human and materials resources need to be provided adequately.

No matter how good the teaching staff are, they may not be able to function effectively and effectively without appropriate teaching materials, equipment and adequate infrastructural, like workshop, conducive classrooms and laboratories, especially when is over loaded with lesson and practical courses.

A well-planned programme, they say, will fail if at implementation stage the necessary instructments are not supplied.

The world at large is going technological and if Nigeria schools must keep abreast with the global technological advancement than the training must be borne in mind and they are adequate supply, proper maintenance and judicious usage of the materials.

The question to ask is, who provides these resources materials to schools? Eze (1991) in his contribution, opines that instructional materials produced commercially play a key role in functional education in our schools that when these are understand, our next alternative is in improvisation, provide the improvised equally delivers the goods.
Fortunately, some sources of improvisation are available where around us by nature. Human re-arrangement of nature only requires our initiative and creative to tap them fully towards the attainment and mastery of some skills.
Nigeria must realize that finding pragmatic solution to the problems be setting the growth and development, Business Education in the country should not be left to a few person but rather it should be seen as a collective, philanthropists, corporate bodies, government agencies churches and other religion organization etc. must join hands and regard the task of solving these problem as one that must be done. When this is solved, Business Education will be accorded its pride of place in the nation’s education system as salvation of modern civilization.

The National Policy on Education on business studies

National Policy on Education ( 1981 ), ( 1998), (2002) and (2008) offers business studies which comprises of shorthand, typewriting, commerce office practice and book keeping is a compulsory subject at the Junior Secondary School level of education. According to the JSCE syllabus, each of the components of business studies is taught as units and they are examined either m objectivequestions form or essay or both as the case may be (Ahukannah,Akpomi, Olajide, &Nwidum, 2010). The national policy on education (NPE) further provides that •on completion of the junior secondary school, students should be streamed into senior secondary school, the technical college, vocational training centre and the apprenticeship scheme on the basis of 60%, 20%, 10% and 1O%.

Education for business is obtained at the senior secondary level and it is the type .of education that gives specific business knowledge. Vocational education at this level includes shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping, commerce etc which are taught as separate subjects with emphasis on practical training. This enables students to acquire skills either in accounting, secretarial or office administration/management or marketing respectively. One of the aims of secondary education, is that secondary school leavers should be


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Inspire of the federal government emphasis on self-reliance through acquired, still suffers some defects such as inadequate supply or provision of resource materials, poor maintenance and storage of existing ones.

Oren (1998) observed that, being a skill-oriented subject, Business Education requires the use of machine and other equipment for effective teaching to take place. It is therefore, exceptive teaching to take place. It is therefore expected that the federal government through the ministries of education federal, state and local government will see to the provision or availability of theses necessary resources for teaching and learning of these requirement skills.

According to Oyedele (1995) citied in Atakps (2001) Nigeria children and youths are being educated more in accordance with yesterday’s world rather than in preparation for tomorrow’s living. This is in agreement with what Umoh-Mac and Nkume (op. cit) said about the obsolete equipment found in Nigeria schools.

Emphasizing the need for the provision of instructional materials in schools, Obi and Akume opine that, Business Eduication subject being a skilled area of study cannot be learnt by the student sitting and folding their arms and nodding their heads. To give this training, the schools must be equipped with the necessary materials on which it intends to give, but rather it appears that most school that offer Business Education subject are not adequately equipped for the instructions. Resource materials are means of making teaching and learning process easy, more meaningful and understandable, Uzoegwu (2001).

These materials are not just textbooks, but it include machine, chalkboard and real objects instructional aids on the other hands are those that teacher prepare mainly to help him/her pass on the message easier and more effectively. They include cardboard drawings, real objects brought into the class for learners to physically see and touch (visual aids).

With the foregoing, the aim or purpose of study is to evaluate the availability functionality and utilization of resource materials use for teaching and learning Business Education subjects in Enugu North Local Government


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the innovative techniques of teaching and learning business education in secondary school which includes the following objectives;

  1. To examine the innovative techniques for teaching and learning Business Education subject in Secondary Schools.
  2. To find out the extent to which the innovative techniques are functional.
  3. The extent of utilization of the innovative techniques by Business Education Teachers.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

Question One

What are the innovative techniques necessary for teaching and learning of Business subject in the secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State?

Question Two

How functional are the available resource used for teaching and learning of business subject in the Secondary school in Enugu North Local government Area of Enugu State?


1.5 Significance of the Study

The study strives to find out the extent to which resource are supplied, managed and utilized in secondary schools in Enugu State. The finding of this study will enable students and teachers to identify the problem(s) which the total lacks or inadequate supply of resources bring on the teaching and learning process. The presence of resource materials in the teaching and learning process makes learning more practical and more understandable to the student.

Resource materials reduce from the teacher the burden of explaining for a very long time for the student to understand. The study will also give the teacher insight into what is needed in order to manage or utilized the available resource to enhance effective teaching.

This study further intended to sensitize curriculum planners and implementations and educational policy maker on the need to put more emphasis on utilization and improvisation of resource materials.

Finally, since the study encourages the use of resource materials for more practical teaching and learning process, the graduate of Business Education like other areas will be people who are well prepared for their job performance and this will ease the employers problem of on-job training of workers thus enhancing production.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Research of this type would have been deemed fit to cover the Enugu state, the whole state, a region of the country.

The researchers as a result of finance and duration of research have decided to limit the research to some selected schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.

The schools are

  1. City Girls Secondary School, Enugu.
  2. Metropolitan Girl Secondary School, Enugu
  3. Queen’s School Enugu.
  4. Government Technical college, Enugu
  5. Government Secondary Schools, Enugu.

1.7 Definition of Significant Terms

Innovative: introducing new ideas; original and creative in thinking.

Teaching:

Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given.

Business Education:

Is a branch of education that involves teaching the skills and operations of the business industry. This field of education occurs at multiple levels, including secondary and higher education institutes.

Education in business has many forms, mainly occurring within a classroom of a school. Internships are also another way to receive this type of education. A business education has many components, as there are many different areas of the business industry as a whole. An education in business varies greatly in its curriculum and popularity around the world.


1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literatures. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to evaluate the innovative techniques of teaching and learning business education in secondary schools in Nigeria.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in supporting the view the findings from the study that evaluate the innovative techniques of teaching has a significant effect on learning business education in secondary schools in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The study has examined the innovative techniques of teaching and learning business education in secondary schools in Nigeria. A due background was introduced in the first chapter where the study’s objectives were highlighted and defined which included to examine the innovative techniques for teaching and learning Business Education subject in Secondary Schools, to find out the extent to which the innovative techniques are functional and to determine the extent of utilization of the innovative techniques by Business Education Teachers. The research methodology was described in the third chapter while the data so generated were presented in the fourth chapter of this study.


5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on our study we found out that innovative techniques needed for teaching business education at the secondary schools are grossly inadequate in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The few available ones are obsolete and not functional. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the government:- federal, State and Local Government should make available basic resources for teaching and learning business education in secondary school where business course are offered so as to make the acquisition of business skill more permanent on the learners.

We found out that the available resources used for teaching and learning of business subject in the Secondary school in Enugu North Local government Area of Enugu State where effective andthe innovative techniques necessary for teaching and learning of Business subject in the secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State includes demonstration, fieldtrips/excursion, workshop practice, field interview, industrial cooperative, filling out forms etc. These methods involve the teaching of theoretical and practical aspects of business subjects within and outside the school. These innovative strategies were rated effective. From our findings these are our recommendations;

  1. Government should assign independent supervisors to monitor and evaluate business subject teachers in secondary schools in respect of effective teaching of business subjects because of its strategic importance to national development.
  2. Government should use secondary schools as skill acquisition centre which is more accessible to the students instead of building, equipping and managing separate centers for skill acquisition.
  3. Government should give financial rewards and awards to teachers who use effective teaching strategies for teaching business subjects in secondary schools. In order to motivate others to implement its usage.
  4. Relevant authorities of government should make teaching facilities available as well as financial provisions for field-trips, office visits and other out of classroom teaching/learning activities

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the innovative methods of teaching and learning?

Short lectures, simulations, role-plays, problem-based learning (PBL), inquiry-based method, and computerbased learning are some of the innovative and creative teaching and learning methods [14]. These methods testify to the rapid growth of technology involved in learning facilitation.

Can you shake up your teaching in innovative ways?

If you’re interested in shaking up your teaching in innovative ways that keep your students engaged and excited — in this very short-attention-span world we live in — we would love to help. We believe that finding new and innovative methods of teaching is a crucial skill for high school teachers.

What is the role of innovation in the education system?

The use of innovative methods in educational institutions has the potential not only to improve education, but also to empower people, strengthen governance and galvanize the effort to achieve the human development goal for the country.

How to enhance the learning process of students?

Brain research has actually shown that certain methods and approaches can truly enhance the learning process and, done right, applying innovative learning and attention-management techniques to classes is a win-win for both students and teachers. Read on. 1. Visualization It can be very hard for students to understand a list of disconnected facts. 

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