The Impact Of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) In The Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry
The main aim of this study was to find the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of chemistry in Secondary schools in Owerri municipal Area. Three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The literatures related to this study were reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies. The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The population of the study comprised 15,675 students and 15 secondary schools in Owerri municipal Area of Imo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 secondary schools students. The instrument used to obtain information was a structured questionnaire. The instrument used was validated by three lecturers in the school of Education Godfrey Okoye University Enugu. Therefore, the findings of the study showed that lack of funding for equipping information communication technology facilities in secondary school have been a problem for the government to equip all the necessary information communication technology facilities needed by the secondary schools for effective teaching and learning of chemistry. Lack of skilled technical workers is another problem that secondary schools are facing due to lack of funding to take them on train them on how to handle the information communication technology facilities. Based on these, the study recommended that ICT equipment and facilities should be made available to all technical colleges. Government should encourage and put in place policies to attract international codes and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to invest on ICT related projects in secondary schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
Information and technology has a major role to play in forming the new worldwide economy to deliver fast changes in the society. Within the previous decade, ICT has advanced and changed at such a speed, that developing countries have not been able to catch up with the revolution and have been left behind and thus lag in their communication with the developed countries. ICT acts as the foundation stone of the contemporary world; thus, understanding this technology and its fundamental concepts is considered as part of the core of education (UNESCO, 2002). Technology has the potential to renovate the ways of instruction, where and how learning occurs and the roles of students and educators in the instructional process (UNESCO, 2002a). ICT is transforming procedures of instructional process by contributing components of strength to learning situations involving virtual environment. It is an effective and influential instrument for providing educational opportunities; thus, it is difficult to envision future learning situations that are not bolstered by information and communication technology.
Educational institutions may utilize ICT to enrich the students with skills and knowledge for the 21st century (Andoh, 2012), such that it can add to worldwide accessibility to education, educational equality, broadcasting of quality teaching learning programs, educators’ professional growth and to help in obtaining a more effective educational management. Hence, accessibility, inclusion and standard being the key issues of education, can be comfortably addressed through ICT. ICT improves the standard of education by encouraging learning through ongoing discussion, delayed time discussion, directed instruction, self-learning, critical thinking, data seeking and analysis (Yuen, Law & Wong, 2003). Utilization of ICT can enhance outcomes, instruction, administration and create important abilities in the underprivileged groups (Sharma, 2003), and at the same time influence educational instruction and research process (Yusuf, 2005).
In classroom teaching and learning process, the use of ICT is imperative as it gives chance to the instructors and learners to operate, store, control and retrieve data other than to promote self- regulated and active learning (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013). ICT-based learning includes an expanded propensity towards collaborative learning among learners and instructors, not just in a specific classroom. This kind of collaboration is in contrast to the conventional learning environment, for example, distance learning inspires educators and learners to engage in learning even after school time (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013). The system helps instructors to plan and prepare lessons and design materials such as course content (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013). The rapid development of this system has prompted a revolution in learning as new technological advancement in education has involved the re-examination of new techniques and instruments in instructional process.
Computers and the Internet have been touted as potentially capable means to empower the users for educational changes and improvement, by utilizing various information and resources and reviewing information from different points of view; hence, cultivating the authenticity and actuality of learning situations (Tinio, 2003). ICT helps to make complicated things simple to comprehend by simulations that once more add to real learning situations. Hence, ICT may act as a facilitator of dynamic learning and higher order thinking (Alexander, 1999).
To enhance the academic performance of students, there is a need to turn from conventional teaching methods to modern teaching methods. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is space and time independent making it convenient for students to go through the program either at home or on a school computer. This encourages interactivity, which individualizes content for each learner based on their needs and it provides formative feedback to multiple choice questions. CAI enhances learning rate where the learners are able to learn more materials given the same amount of time as compared to conventionally taught learners. Moreover, students receiving instructions through ICT retain learning better (Cotton, 2001). The issue of low achievement among the learners has been tormenting the instructive framework right from the elementary classes to university level. This issue wastes human potential and facilities for education. The findings of the study will confirm the effectiveness of ICTs in teaching of chemistry and also predict that ICT based instruction is better than conventional teaching approach. In addition to enhanced achievement scores, the findings of the study will boost the interest and retention of the students in chemistry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The information technology revolution especially in the area of internet and computer technology has heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative curriculum delivery strategy in the education sector. Oye, (2012) emphasized that the growth in internet technology and its application in education have brought great transformation which has made teaching and learning less burdensome, effective and result oriented by providing avenue for sharing idea and information. Well researched and packaged teaching materials can be prepared by teachers and delivered to students using e-learning devices such as power point presentation, video tutorials, e-books, computer based training and web based training (Selwyn, 2011).
The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter is the problem, Unavailability of qualified ICTs teachers are part of the problem; Lack of ICTs and their accessories constitute the problems, Lack of teaching aids and computer textbooks militate against the effective teaching learning. Among the militating factors hindering the effect of ICT on students academic performance, are a lot of capital investment to buy hardware’s, software’s and standby generators for the school. Lack of search skills, automation at infancy level, epileptic power supply, and technical knowhow are some of the problem encountered by the teachers in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area, and to find out; what the possible solutions of the challenges will be like.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of chemistry in Secondary schools in Owerri municipal Area. Specifically the study intends to:
- Determine the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area.
- Ascertain the perception of teachers and students in use of ICT in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area.
- Identify the challenges facing the useof ICT in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
- What are the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area?
- What are the perception of teachers and students in use of ICT in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area?
- What are the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school in Owerri municipal Area?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will benefit various educational stakeholders. They include teachers, curriculum planners, stakeholder, students.
It would be useful to students in determining the many opportunities the ICT technology provides in their academic lives.
Teachers would be guided on how integrating ICT technology will create a richer environment for teaching and learning. The mobile phone companies would be more informed and therefore invest in providing mobile phone technologies to schools with internet connectivity and smart phones at a reduced price.
Curriculum planners and policy makers would be aware of the numerous possibilities of using mobile phone technologies in learning, so as to assist in implementing and designing activities to support the various learning styles.
The findings of this study would also complement other studies and provide appropriate information for content developers and mobile learning developers in designing mobile phone applications for learning. This research would contribute to the body of educational research in that it explores student’s academic performance with multiple indicators of learning, which is satisfaction, learning style and performance.
The research may provide literature for educational researchers so as to add more information on innovative uses of mobile phone technologies to enhance educational experiences of students.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study covers the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of chemistry in Secondary schools in Owerri municipal Area. Geographically, the study will cover all the government secondary schools in Owerri municipal Area.
1.7 Limitation of Study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presented the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
Most of the schools in Owerri municipal Area do not have enough information communication technology facilities and has affected the enhancement of teaching and learning of chemistry. Information communication technology like computer system, microscope and computer lab. are available in the secondary schools and other information communication technology like tape recorder, television, mobile phone, projector, micro phone and electronic notice board which are necessary are lacking in the secondary schools and it has affected the effectiveness of teaching and learning of chemistry.
Information communication technology facilities has motivated the students learning habits it has made their study easier, students are now capable to use information communication technology to achieve a wider knowledge on multimedia products. Information communication technology has made teacher to have wider opportunity to make research in internet to get information on subject matter and it has changed their mode to teaching and impacting knowledge.
Information communication technology facilities are facing a lot of challenges due to funding and lack of technical workers and because government could not fund the training of skilled technical workers it has led to them not to have enough knowledge on the appropriate software to use and power supply on its own has created a lot of problem for information communication technology facilities to be used when it is needed by the students.
This study was conducted to find out if teachers use information communication technology in teaching/learning of chemistry. The major objective of the study was to provide evidence that teachers integrated information communication technology into teaching and learning of chemistry. The findings indicated that a great deal of government subject teacher had not integrated information communication technology into teaching and learning of chemistry subject.
However, the majority of them valued the use of information communication technology in learning of chemistry subject and inform students to look for relevant of chemistry subject topics as they carry out computer literacy study. The study further established that students learn of chemistry subject subjects. A male of chemistry subject teacher from rural school reported that computer increases students’ knowledge. Despite the value of using information communication technology, the study established that very few teachers were trained in information communication technology skills. The study recommends that should be trained on the skills required to integrate of chemistry subject into the teaching of chemistry subject.
5.2.1 Educational Implications for Further Studies
Findings from the present study have some implications for the educational policy makers. These include:
- There should be policy formulation that will ensure adequate provision of instructional materials, both foreign and local.
- All of chemistry subject teachers should be exposed to, and trained on the art of improvisation of instructional materials on regular basis so as to make teaching-learning more effective.
On the bases of the above findings the following, recommendations are made:
- An chemistry subject teacher should always use his immediate environment to teach as it contains a lot of material-resources for effective teaching of the concepts in the subject.
- The Federal and State Ministries of Education should make appropriate plans to expose of chemistry subject teachers to training workshops on improvisation in order to update their techniques for improvising specific equipment’s.
- Government should make funds available and sponsor the teachers’ attendance at conferences, seminars and workshops on of chemistry subject material resource production utilization and management.
- Creative and resourceful teachers who improvise equipment’s and materials should be rewarded and motivated adequately.
- There is need for organizations, government, parent Teacher Association Voluntary Organizations and philanthropists to join hands in procuring necessary of chemistry subject materials resources in schools.
- Chemistry subject teachers should select the cheapest available equipment for demonstration or illustration of principles and concepts in science teaching. The functionality and duration of equipment should be taken into consideration.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
The researcher is suggesting that study areas listed below should be given further research attention,
- The impact of teachers working condition and their job performance inOwerri municipal Area.
- Factors affecting the use of computer in classroom management in Owerri municipal Area.
The influence of poor learning environment on teachers’ classroom management in Owerri municipal Area.
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