The Use Of Instructional Materials For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary Schools

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The Use Of Instructional Materials For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


In this work we analysed the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Three research questions were posed to direct the study. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sampling population. The research questions were analysed using means and standard deviation.. From the result obtained from the investigation into the management of Instructional Materials in Secondary Schools, the researcher came up with the following conclusions; there is availability of Instructional materials but the non-cooperative attitude of teachers, principals Non-teaching staff and students in handling Instructional materials jeopardize the management of Instructional materials in Secondary Schools.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The educational sector in Nigeria is in continuous change with the advancement in the level of technology and introduction of teaching aids.

The effectiveness of the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business education can only be seen in the level of academic performance of students in business education.

Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. According to (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) state that at this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting.

According to Abdullahhi (2010), stated that instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. In that same vein according to Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are use to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the instructional materials.

The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.

According to Umoh-Mac Nkume (2000) many researches on the availability of available resource carried out in Nigeria, in schools offering Business Education programme often revealed the presence of inadequate training facilities in the schools. They further stressed that even the few available ones are not being maintained. There are poor storage facilities for them and so they become non-functional. Obi and Akume (2001) warned that any school that any school that desire to offer modern Business Education programme must include in its programme, a thorough training in the use of thee appliances.

Also to give such training the school must be equipped with appliances with which it intends to give instructions. To take the point further, they stated that for the teaching process to effectively taken place generally, both human and materials resources need to be provided adequately.

It is to this regard that the study wishes to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools in Oyigbo Rivers State.


1.2 Statement of Problem

In spite of the federal government emphasis on entrepreneurship education of both young and old, the school still suffers some defects such as inadequate supply or provision of resource materials, poor maintenance and storage of existing ones. According to Oren (1998) he observed that, being a skill-oriented subject, Business Education requires the use of machine and other equipment for effective teaching to take place. It is therefore expected that the federal government through the ministries of education at federal, state and local government will see to the provision or availability of these necessary resources for teaching and learning of these requirement skills.

According to Oyedele (2000) citied in Atakps (2001) Nigeria children and youths are being educated more in accordance with yesterday’s world rather than in preparation for tomorrow’s living. This is in agreement with what Umoh-Mac and Nkume (2000) said about the obsolete equipment found in Nigeria schools. Emphasizing the need for the provision of instructional materials in schools, Obi and Akume opine that, Business Education subject being a skilled area of study cannot be learn by the student sitting and folding their arms and nodding their heads. To give this training, the schools must be equipped with the necessary materials on which it intends to give, but rather it appears that most school that offer Business Education subject are not adequately equipped for the instructions.

Resource materials are means of making teaching and learning process easy, more meaningful and understandable; this is the therefore the focus of this research, to bring to bear the use of instructional materials for effective teaching of business education.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. Investigate the types of instructional materials available.
  2. Investigate problems militating against management of instructional materials.
  3. Investigate the adequacy of storage of instructional materials.

1.4 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  1. What types of instructional materials are available in secondary schools in in Oyigbo Rivers state?
  2. What are the problems militating against the management of instructional materials in secondary schools?
  3. How adequate is the storage of Business education instructional materials in secondary schools?

1.5 Significance of Study

The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools will be of immense benefit to the entire Rivers state and other researchers that wishes to carryout similar research on the research topic as it will discuss the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. The study will also discuss the factors affecting the availability of instructional materials in most junior secondary schools in Oyigbo LGA. Rivers state.


1.6 Scope of Study

The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning business education in Oyigbo Rivers state will cover the relationship between the use of instructional materials and students academic achievement in business education in junior secondary schools.


1.7 Limitation of Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work


1.8 Definition of Terms

Business Education:

Involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business

Instructional Materials:

Refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the result of the study based on the data analysis carried out in chapter four is examined, interpreted and inferences drawn from them. The discussion deals with four research Questions and two Hypothesis posed to direct the study. The chapter starts with summary and then conclusion and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

The purpose of this study was to find out the management of instructional materials in Junior secondary schools in Oyigbo River state. In doing this, Three research questions were posed to direct the study. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sampling population. The research questions were analysed using means and standard deviation. Generally, the study is based on Type, storage, and usage of Business studies instructional materials, the result revealed that instructional materials in secondary schools in Oyigbo River state is available but there is lack of storage facilities, maintenance and management of instructional materials. Since the teacher is the implementer of educational objective, and he lacks the knowledge of management and maintenance of Instructional materials, it will jeopardize teaching and learning generally. The implication is that the teachers should be re-trained and reoriented on the management, usage, storage system and maintenance of Business education Instructional materials in Oyigbo River state. The poor maintenance, and management of instructional materials in our schools, in Oyigbo River state as indicated by the result of the study will ultimately deprive the students the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning Business education in schools.


5.3 Conclusion

From the result obtained from the investigation into the management of Instructional Materials in Secondary Schools, the researcher came up with the following conclusions; there is availability of Instructional materials but the non-cooperative attitude of teachers, principals Non-teaching staff and students in handling Instructional materials jeopardize the management of Instructional materials in Secondary Schools.

Lack of qualified Personnel to handle some Instructional materials/ equipment such as laboratory equipment/materials is also a constraint to the management of Instructional materials.

In conclusion, therefore, the degree with which the principals, teachers, non-teaching staff and students cooperate and develop positive attitude/interest to the management of Instructional materials will go a long way to realizing the educational aims and objectives.


5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made:

  1. Government should train and retrain teacher on proper management and maintenance of Business education instructional materials.
  2. Government should provide adequate storage facilities in our schools.
  3. Government should make fund available for the provision of projected Business education materials in schools.
  4. Government should also organize seminars, workshops and conferences on innovative ways of maintenance and management of instructional materials.
  5. Students should be trained on the principles and processes of maintenance culture.
  6. Government should enact a policy on proper uses, storage, maintenance, and management of Instructional materials.

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