Teaching And Learning Prose In Schools (A Study Of Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School And Government Senior College, Badary)

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

Teaching And Learning Prose In Schools (A Study Of Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School And Government Senior College, Badary)


Abstract


The study investigated teaching and learning prose: a study of Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior college, Badagry. The researcher mode use of 50 secondary school students and 10 teachers from two different school in Badagry Local Government and five research questions were also used to test the opinion of the students. The researcher also used simple percentage. Suggestion and recommendations were mode.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

According to Aristotle(1956) in his book “Peotic” literature is defined as serious enterprise bringing out its special differentiating qualities, demonstrating its functions, and vindicates literature against those who consider it useless or immoral page (20)

Literature refers to any kind of composition ‘in prose or verse which has for its purpose not the communication of facts but the telling of a story or the giving of pleasure through some use of the inventive imagination in the employment of word. Literature by implication springs from our in-born live of narrating a story or experiences. It is the totality of man’s action in his social environment

Genres of Literature

All literary works are grouped under three basic classes. These classes are technically termed genres. The three branches of literature constitute the component parts of imaginative or artistic creative work. Have the following.

  • Drama
  • Prose/Novel
  • Poetry

The basic difference in this various divisions depends on the narrative language used in each of them.

Nature of Prose

Prose basically refers to all types of writing that use the normal linguistic apparatus, marked by plain sentences, paragraphs and chapters, as distinct from drama and poetry. It is unique as a form of story telling art characterized by a subject matter.

Prose means an ordinary form of spoken or written language. It is arranged in verses and rhymes. It comes, in sentences form through dialogue and conversation, the sentences are added together to make paragraphs. Prose is a genre(s) of literature which is one of the subjects in the school curriculum. It explains, describes and narrates events.

Adejumo (2003) claims that ”prose simply means story telling” It requires that usual comprehensive skill that has the ability to identify the imagery or figurative expression used in the chapters.

Prose demands the individual interest, dedication, commitment and, time. It should be noted that even English language which is considered very important cannot stand without literature and there is no way a teacher will teach Iiterature without English prose being integrated in it.

Types of Prose

There are sub-genres of prose like short story, the novel, novella and the novelette.

The Short Story:

This is the shortest form of prose that shares all that features of an averages novel. The short story simply distances itself from the novel by its length or coverage. It is absolutely complete on its own, in terms of presentation of characters, setting and theme.

The Novel:

The novel is the most ambitious of the sub-genres of prose. It relates its story in manners resembling the others sub-genres, nonetheless, it does this through a rational coverage. It is total and wide ranging in its coverage of those actions presented. Moreover, characters are wholly developed, with well marked-out complexities, presented in a relaxed manner.

The Novella:

The word novella is an Italian word applied by the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio. It is an known as the intermediary prose form; this is varied between the short story and novel, equally sharing all the qualities of the novel. It reveals a natural tendency of being longer than the short story but shorter than the novel.

The Novelette:

The novelette is another Italian word for the genres which is an anthology of short stories. More than one story is incorporated within the volume of novelette.

The problems encountered in teaching and learning of prose and the suggestion of possible solutions as well as what should be the teachers role in teaching and learning of prose constitute our focus in this study.

Over the years the rate at which students fails their final examinations especially in literature (prose) has given causes for public concern. The achievements of students in WASC examinations for the past five years was nothing to write on according to Momoh (2010). Many blame the government for this deficiency while others believe that parents and even teachers are parties to the failure of the students themselves. It is therefore against this back chop that we decided to carry out this research in other to find solution to the stated problems and possibly improve the teaching and learning of prose in schools.

It is our believed that having outlined the problems of teaching and learning the above subject. Useful recommendations and suggestions for overcoming such problems could then be offered with a view to improving the teaching and Iearning of prose (literature) not only in the selected schools, but also for others offering the course as well. Education planners Curriculum developments, teachers, student and others concerned individual could find this project useful.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The study is to find possible solution to making the teaching and learning of prose effective in Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior College, Badagry.

The following problems are outlined.

  1. First the problem of qualified teacher is a great hindrance that affects the teaching of prose in schools.
  2. Second the issue of overcrowding in class of literature (prose) makes learning ineffective in a literature class.
  3. Also, the, problem, of instructional materials is another issue facing student’s performance in English literature.
  4. However the problem of irrelevant textbooks affects the effectiveness of prose teaching.

1.3 Purpose of Study

This research project is designed to investigate the following.

  1. To identify and examine the cause of the problems of the students failures in literature in external examinations.
  2. To investigate the teachers role in teaching prose in our data.
  3. To examine factors that enhances and negates the teaching and learning of prose in Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior College Badagry.
  4. To proffer possible solution to make the teaching and learning of prose meaningful.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are raised to guide the research study in finding solutions to problems of teaching and learning of prose in Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior College Badagry.

  1. What are the causes of students’ failure in literature in examinations?
  2. To what extent does the teacher of literature contribute in students performance in the learning of literature in schools.
  3. What factors enhance and negate the students learning literature in schools.
  4. What is the solution to effectives teaching and learning of literature in our chosen data?
  5. What are the criteria for choosing textbooks at secondary school level?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The teacher and student of English will find the result of this study helpful in many ways.

  1. It could serves as sources of further knowledge in solving problems that might be militating against the effective teaching and learning of prose.
  2. This research project will help teachers in Oko-Afo senior secondary schools and government senior college Badagry and help students development their vocabulary and reading speed.
  3. It also hoped that this project will help the students to re-shape their reading ability and vocabulary.

Some useful information derived from the result of this research could be a description about the nature of materials used for teaching of prose, the attitude of teachers towards the subject English and the students. The project will help the teacher to rectify the deficiency in the subject.

The importance of this project study could be felt when most of the solution suggested’ are put into practice. Potentials researchers could find the result useful to them and may serve as stepping stone to provoke further research studies:


1.6 Limitation of the Study

The research tend to make this research study to be of immense value to the teaching and learning of prose in Oko-Afo Senior Secondary Schools and Government Senior College Badagry, it should be comprehensive enough to take care of all secondary schools.

The study is limited to Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior College Badagry while selected samples were obtained from the students and teachers.

The research work is limited to only novels as a sub-genre of prose.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to the problems of teaching and learning prose in two selected schools in Badagry. The researchers delimit the research work to Oko-Afo Senior Secondary School and Government Senior College Badagry.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study examines the problems of teaching and learning prose in Oko-Afo Senior Secondary Schools and Government Senior College Badagry.

The purpose of the study is to identify and determined extent to which school, home and students factors affect the performance of students in prose and the extent to which teachers in literature pay attention to the application of current trends in their instructional process. It also gives insight on some of the adverse effects of which are bond to surface if teacher qualification, reading culture and methodology is not given attention in the instructional process of prose. All these were examined in this research work.

The first chapter gave an insight to the background of the study. Further statedthe major problem that initiated the research work and the importance and purpose of the study was also included.

The third chapter also made a conceptual analysis of components of research work especially through a thorough browse of related literature being a descriptive survey, the study made were of 10 teachers and one hundred(100) students were selected in (2) schools in Badagry where a well structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the target population.

All data collected were analysed using simple percentage and frequency counts statically tool as presented in the fourth chapter of this research work.


5.2 Conclusion

The place of instructional materials, methodology and home background in the effective implementation of any education programme cannot be undermined. Instructional materials perform such functions as the extension of the range of experience available to learners, supplement and complement the teachers verbal explanation thereby making learning experience richer and providing the teachers with interest into a wide variety of learning activities.
The finding of this study proves that both students and teachers have a positive attitude towards learning prose especially through the use materials in classroom. It is therefore the use of this device in literature classroom make the teaching and learning, exciting and effective. Besides, it can seen that students are highly motivated when effective materials are used to teach prose.

However it is noteworthy to say that from this study adequate provision of lCT tools and proper training for the teachers will be a strong tool in ameliorating the problem of ignorance and incompetence among students and teachers . From the study it is important to literature advise that government should promote the instructional technology as professional development is essential to ensure that teachers are prepared to meaningfully incorporate technology into the curriculum. Herman (2002) believes that the integration of technology is still in its beginning stages and has not yet been fully acknowledge and accepted by many teachers.

This corroborates with the postulation of Okebukola (2002) that the effective instructional materials in language learning especially English (standing as Nigeria’s lingua franca and literature in English is largely dependent upon the willingness of teachers to meaningfully integrate it into the curriculum. In order to ensure that teachers have the ability to effectively utilize effective resources throughout the curriculum schools need to develop programs to trains teachers as Baylor and Ritchie (2002) predict that successful technology integration depends on two variably teacher openness to change and the extent to which teachers experience and practice with technology.

On the part of the students the findingsof this study indicate that students usually show a relatively high attitude towards learning literature. It also suggest that both male and female students have the same perception about effective and appropriate instructional materials.

It is observe also that students in school where there is enough multimedia devices and other appropriate instructional materials for learning literature had higher performance than their counterparts who do not have.


5.3 Recommendations

The general opinion of the respondents is that inadequate instructional materials, teaching technique, students home background, reading culture among students and teachers qualification for learning literature in English have negative effects on students performance in prose.

In View of the challenges identified in this study, the researcher has come up with the following recommendations as possible solution to the problems.

  1. The government should ensure to enact policies guiding the provision of adequate instructional materials in secondary schools.
  2. ii. Teachers should ensure that they attend further training on skills acquisition such as the use of computer. The need to update teachers knowledge on materials for teaching of literature and acquaint them with other new innovations is also to be enhanced. This could be made possible by frequently organizing seminars, workshops and in-service training for teachers.
  3. Policymakers on secondary schools should in findings so as to enable the procurement of materials necessary for improvisation of instructional materials in literature and textbooks that would facilitate the effective teaching of prose.
  4. The government and private school owners should as well recruit teachers with requisite qualifications in literature and knowledge in computer use. for effective teaching.
  5. Subjective teachers (prose) are advised to be abreast of new developments in the area of language by attending workshops, seminars, vocational courses to make them associated with current development in the subject.
  6. Literature teachers should be experts in the field and not just using mere ideology.
  7. Materials that are very costly to purchase can be improvised. Provision should also be made to establish and equip libraries in every schools.
  8. There should also be provision for the training of the students in the use of library equipments.
  9. Teachers should as well give assignment to students that will require the use of computer and other language learning devices or gadgets.
  10. Teacher should encourage students to buy different novels to read in order for them to improve their reading culture.
  11. On the other hand students should not limit themselves to the text use in schools alone,but get other literary text to improve their skills.
  12. Parents should be enlightened on how to encourage their children as to enable them handle challenges in their academics.
  13. Parent should also endeavour to provide for the learning needs of their children or wards.
  14. The federal ministry of education and the Nigerian Educational Research Council (NERC) should establish or if it has been establish make functional centres for the provision of locally developed teaching aids and its functions should be included in the evaluation and recommendations on specific and relevant instructional materials.

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