Factors That Influence Consumers Preference Of Detergent
The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence consumer preference ofdetergents in Enugu. The study specifically sought to answer research questions related to the influence of social and cultural, psychological/personal class, demographic and economic factors on consumer preference ofdetergents. The study employed a Descriptive design. A total of 70 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. However, only 57 (81.4%) respondents participated in this study. These participants were selected using purposive sampling methods to ensure participants meet the criteria for the study. Data were collected using mainly questionnaires and interviews but also methods of observation and documentary reviews were used to supplement collected data as required. Theories and literatures relating to consumers’ preference were reviewed and summarized and used to develop a conceptual framework, the questionnaire and interviews for studying consumers’ preference of detergents on supermarkets. The findings of this study did not show wide variations to studies conducted in other places and literatures. The majority of respondents agreed that social cultural factors, psychological/personal class factors, demographic factors and economic factors influence consumers preference of detergents on supermarkets. The study recommends attention should put on social cultural, psychological/personal, demographic and economic factors while developing, pricing, distributing and communicating products.
1.1 Background of the Study
Many business forms are struggling hard to know who buys and consumers their products, where they are located, how they buy, when, from whom else they buy and why and equally why people do not buy a particular product from certain persons, organizations and shares. Despite of all the marketing strategies applied by such forms to attract these consumers. The centre point of all the daily activities of all business organization is an individual, he purchases and makes use of the product (goods and services0 offered for sale in the business firm. By t his we can understand that a consumer is one who consumers or uses the product of a firm.
He may or may not be the actual buyer of the firms production who then is the consumer of that product.
The consumer and the reasons why, how and when as well as where he buys or not buy from, the future buying decisions are now fully integrated in to the daily business function of every enterprise. This is in much recognition of the marketing concept and consumers sovereignty in recent times by many firms who comes to realize that he consumer is still the king.
This is because nothing works until the consumer needs are satisfied. The consumer is now at the centre point of every business attention, as the period of fast and hard selling is going way to the much recognition of the consumer as the king, one who does no wrong and one whose existence and need satisfaction is the major reason why many business organizations are in business in the first instance.
It is important also to note that when a manufacturer produces a product. It does so he anticipation of profit. In marketing profits are usually made through the satisfaction of the needs and wants of the ultimate consumers. However it is not enough to know what a buyer works. An highway should also be made to find out why the buyer wants a particular product. In view of these factors of the obligation of the manufacture who seller and also the retailers to learn as much as is economically feasible about eh major factors that influence consumers buying behaviour. This is an important factor in planning of all marketing activities which among others include establishing of advertisement and selling appeals in such a manner that consumers desires quality and preferences can be met satisfactorily by marketing efforts.
Brand choice which implies selecting one brand over a set of possible alternatives is an area of consumer behaviour which has received considerable attention by manufactures and markets alike. Infact the concept of brand choice seems to be important according to Parker 1977 Vol. 4 P. 4, it can result in the difference. According to Walter G.C. (1974 Pg 180) he argued that “the consumer is simultaneously influenced by physiological and psychological factors. The physiological factors have to do with the individual physical requirement and the psychological factors have to do with the individual feelings, biases and motions”. He also said that some more important factors influencing a persons preference are subjective satisfaction of consumer needs, fast experience, product availability and product or brand proce.
Moreover, management and Markr (1975) Vol. 39 P. 5) said that a consumer appears to make his purchases decision among the brands in his “Evoked set”. Thus a seller must organize his effort in such a way that his particular brand is positioned with these selected he the buyers cognitive field.
Cambell (1973 P. 243) has also defined evoked set as “the act of alternative brands of product which the buyers actually consider when making specific brand preference; In other words awareness of whom customers are and how they behave or likely to behave is very essential for effective marketing and success depends upon correctly predictory consumers brand preferences.
Modern A.K.S (1991) point of view the influence of product attribute people purchases behaviour is determined by a whole series of behavioural factors which are used to explain why buyers need and/or want certain products. The marketing must understand why people want or need a product so that he can group or (segment) different people according to those reasons for purchase.
Also attributes such as a price, package design and level of awareness also influence brand preference of products. People may also seek for the benefit that product provides rather than product themselves. Consumers may also consider the available alternative from the vantage point of the usage context with which they experience or the specific application they are considering.
In Nigeria today the range of detergent products has continued to increase steadily, some of the brand we have to the market today are as follows.
- Uncle P
With these anltiphicity of brands, coupled with the increased when of production and availability of product, there is the tendency for stiff competition in the market. Also consumers are more or less confused on which brand to patronize.
1.2 Statement of Problem
- To find out the major factors that influence consumers preference of detergent brand
- To identity consumers preference for detergent brand
- To determine the related outlet preferred by consumers.
- To determine the attributed that will influence consumer to prefer one brand of detergent to another
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing consumer buying behavior on detergents in Nigeria. The specific objectives include the following:
- To find out the perception of consumers towards buying detergents in Nigeria.
- To ascertain if social factors influence the type of detergent they buy.
- To investigate the socioeconomic factors that influence the type of detergent consumers buy in Nigeria.
- To know the impact of Psychological factors on consumer’s choice of detergent in Nigeria.
- To examine if advertisement affect consumer’s choice of detergent in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following questions:
- To what extent do social and cultural factors influence consumer preference of detergents?
- To what extent do psychological/personal class factors influence consumer preference of detergents?
- To what extent do advertisement influence consumer preference of detergents?
1.6 The Significance of the Study
The reason why the researcher is conducting the study is not only to satisfy the academic requirement for the award of certificate but to attempt to find out the factors that influence consumers preference, consumer brands, retail outlet and attributes that will influence consumer to prefer one brand to another and as a result increase sales or at most maintain the market share in light of all varely of brands and fair competition and dynamic world. There is a growing competitive activities, consumers education and discontents. The average customer’s aware of his right and expect value for his money. As a result of this, the work will gather all implication of good corporate image and effective customers satisfaction as opposed to ill will and the role of customers orientation and the factors that influence the consumers preference of detergent brands. Other students seeking to do some work in this field of consumers preference will find this invaluable. However I strongly believe that the study is timely now, that a lot of people is not satisfied with the brand of detergent they use and also introduction of new products in the market. This study will help the researcher to find solution to the problem of consumers in preferring a particular brand of product and also form basis for further research of the topic.
1.7 The Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to consumers which is with particular reference to consumers preference in Enugu metropolis as a case study. The researcher also will burnished to factors that influence consumers preference of detergent brands which involves the price, product, attributes, packaging and image.
The researcher involved himself to Enugu metropolis using Obiagu Road, Owerri Road, Ugbene Street, Rivelane, Egbonagu Street, Chime Avenue and Okpara Avenue. The scope also considered preferences as how it creates and affects selection in buying.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The aimed of the study was to examine factors that influence consumer preference ofdetergents in Enugu. The objectives of the study were accomplished and attained because numerous data were gathered and analyzed which gave the blueprint of the factors that influence consumer preference ofdetergents in Enugu targeting detergent consumers at main supermarkets and supermarkets dealers in Enugu.
The study used a descriptive research design. This study involved 57 respondents whereby 41 were detergent consumers and 16 were supermarkets dealers. These participants were selected using purposive sampling methods to ensure participants meet criteria for the study. Data were collected using several data collection methods. The main methods used were questionnaires and interviews also methods of observation and documentary reviews were used to supplement collected data as required.
Theories and literatures relating to consumers preference were reviewed and summarized in this study and were used to develop conceptual framework, questionnaire and interviews for studying consumers’ preference of detergents on supermarkets. The findings of this study did not show wide variations to studies conducted in other places and literatures. The majority of respondents agreed on the presence of factors that influence consumers preference of detergents on supermarkets. These factors included social and cultural factors which are culture, subculture, social class, roles and status, reference groups, family and education. Motivation, perception, beliefs, attitudes, skills and knowledge, self – consciousness, personality and lifestyle, were Psychological/personal class factors identified in this study.
Other factors were demographic factors which are determined by sex, age, place of domicile and physical environment of the purchase place. Also, economic factors which are determined by price, quality of product, product branding, economic situation and occupation were assessed.
From the findings of this study it can be concluded that; Consumer preference of detergents is influenced by a unique set of social and cultural factors, psychological/personal class factors, demographic factors and economic factors. These factors are non-controllable by producers or marketers but should be aware of these factors and take them into account while formulating their marketing strategies.
Based on the above findings and conclusions, the following recommended.
- It is recommended that in designing marketing strategy for detergents, decision makers and marketers should take into account socio-cultural factors basing on the fact that the society’s culture is one of the most fundamental determinants of a person’s want and behaviour. Also, as part of their effort to convince customers to purchase the kinds of products they sell, they need to use socio-cultural representations, especially in promotional appeals that are easily understood and often embraced by the consumers. This would make the consumer feel more comfortable with or can relate better to the product since it corresponds with their cultural values.
- In order to maximize relevance and effectiveness, business and marketing programs of any type, but particularly those that relate directly to the products buying behaviour of consumers, must take into account the psychological/personal class and economic factors. By knowing the influence of the factors such as personality, lifestyle and economic positions to the people they intend to serve, the marketing managers will effectively enhance their target marketing.
- It is also recommended that marketing managers should adopt market segmentation strategies and segment their products markets on the bases of demographic variables such as age and sex since they were all found to have great degree of influences on detergents consumer’s buying decisions.
- Marketing managers are recommended to stimulate opinion leadership in some key members of the society by encouraging favourable word-of-mouth about their products since household consumers are found to heavily rely on them for information. They should also ensure that their products are adequately labelled with important features and attributes to satisfy the educated ones who are found to be problem solvers and would deliberately seek for information in that direction.
- Finally, the study has found that, concessions in the form of price reduction, discount sales and the like have become common practices in supermarkets. The buyer or consumers of detergents should try to avail of these benefits, whenever they are available. However, the buyers of such goods should not be lured merely by concessions without considering the quality and performance aspects of these detergents.
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