The Role Of Marketing Communication In Effective Of Malt Drinks In Aba Metropolis (A Case Study Of The Malt Bottled By Consolidated Breweries Aba)

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The Role Of Marketing Communication In Effective Of Malt Drinks In Aba Metropolis (A Case Study Of The Malt Bottled By Consolidated Breweries Aba)


Communication is perhaps the most important human survival skill because we all need it to maintain contact with the world. This research study focused on the nature, process, channels, and barriers in communications and their effect on the effective marketing of Hi Malt. The researcher made on indepth study of the various marketing communication tools. The study also considered the various media through which sales messages get to potential and prospective consumers, and the impact of there messages against the background of competitive product brands.

To accomplish the purpose of this research, related literature on the subject were viewed. The researcher made use of both primary and secondary data.

The analysis of our data revealed that consumers and aware of the presence of Hi Malt in the market. Semantic barriers, choice of media and appeal to the wrong target market reduce the impact of marketing communication activities. It was also reverted that Hi malt as an indigenous malt drinks in Nigeria does not enjoy an impressive marketing share of the malt drink market. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the image of consolidated breweries plc is a major influencing factor in the sale of Hi-malt.

In the light of the researcher findings, appropriate recommendation were made to enhance the impact of marketing communication on the marketing of Hi-malt message in terms of semantics and the adoption of the universal Malt battle type packaging the researcher advocated into use because in many cares the image of the product and the organization are interwoven, and the both plays symbolic role. However, marketing communication as used in this study is as relates to communication between the marketing organization and their various external publish. Essentially, a marketing organization needs some elements of marketing communication to inform and educate members of its target audience about the existence of its goods & series and to persuade them to patronize it of to develop favourable attitude and opinions towards it. Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known to continually desistretegies to survive in their various markets. This has become more imperative because of me easing competition between companies whose aim is to gain better market share and stars in business. Te situation is not helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the economic wheel of the nation turns, new products are introduced into the market in various shapes and sizes to compete for a place with the already existing products, some of the products enjoy a sizeable shares of the market, other do not. The question then arises as to how to stimulate demand for their product. While these may be other tractors that influences demand for a product and hence its level of consumption, marketing communication plays a vital role in stimulating demand. In many cases, there have been barriers where they exists and reverse them to make for more effective marketing.

Consolidated Breweries plc, the organization responsible for the manufacturing, developments distribution, sales and marketing of Hi-malt (the drink brand of our study0 was incorporated in 1991. This company was born through the merging of two breweries namely Eastern Breweries and continental Breweries. The head quarter of this company was at Lagos and it also has a branch plant at Awo-Omma in owner Imo state of Nigeria . they have their depot to various states in Nigeria which Enugu is one of them. It is from there breweries that two brands of product are produced namely Hi-malt and “33” export lager beer are manufactured and distributed to every hook and Granny of the country. The collective success of the two brands in eh product portfolio has been responsible for the company’s strength an towering statue.

Table of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms.

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Nature of communication
  • 2.2 Process of communication
  • 2.3 Channel / methods of communication
  • 2.4 Barriers to communication
  • 2.5 Marketing communication tools
  • 2.6 Advertising
  • 2.7 Advertising objectives
  • 2.8 Advertising budgets
  • 2.9 Sales promotion
  • 2.10 Packaging
  • 2.11 Personal selling
  • 2.12 Publicity
  • 2.13 Public relations

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research methodology
  • 3.2 Sources of data
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Questionnaire design
  • 3.6 Method of questionnaire administration
  • 3.7 Validation of research instrument
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Limitation of the study

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data presentation and analysis
  • 4.2 Tests of hypothesis

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Presentation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Suggestion for further study
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Communication is fundamental to the existence of every individual, group or organization. It is so vital that without it no individual, group, product or organization can succeed. To my mind communication exists as a major indispensable human need because people need to communicate with others in order to share information, ideas, experience and feelings.

Communication can be viewed from different perspective and like many etymologies, has the ramification and connotations. It could be viewed from the standpoint of person to person relationship. It could be seen from the background of communication chains in an organization or a business setting. And it could indeed be viewed from the perspective of the relationship between the organization and their external publics.

In the development of this study, all the above perspectives of communication may come into use because in many cases the image of the product and the organization are interwoven and they both play a symbolic role. However, marketing communication between the marketing organization and their various external publics. Essentially, a marketing organization needs some elements of marketing communication to importance educate members of its target audience about the existence of its goods and services and to persuade them to patronize it or to develop favourable altitudes and opinions towards it.

Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known to continually design strategies to survive in their various markets. This has become more imperative because of increasing competition between companies whose aim is to gain a better market share and stay in business. The situation is not helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the economic wheel of the nation turns, new products are introduced into the market in various shapes and sizes to compete for a plea with the already existing products. Some of the products enjoy a sizeable share of the market, others do not.

While there may be other factors that influence demand for a product and hence its level of consumption. Marketing communication plays a vital role in stimulating demand. In many cases there have been inadequate communication and in others there have become barriers to marketing communication. There is therefore the need to ascertain inadequacies and barriers where they exist and reverse them to make for more effective marketing.

Consolidated breweries plc, the organization responsible for the manufacturing, development, distribution, sales and marketing of Hi Malt. (the malt drink brand of our study) was incorporated in 1991 as consolidated breweries plc. The birth of this company was the merge ring of continental breweries and eastern breweries in 1991. this two companies were merged because they produce the same type of product which is “33”. These companies came together in 1989 to agreed on each other to be one. They merge in 1991 and brewery both “33” and Hi malt. Eastern brewery produces ‘33” but when they merge, they called their company consolidated brewery plc instead of answering any of their former company name.

The company brewery two rarities of products namely “33” and Hi malt. These companies have their headquarter at Lagos and they brewery only “33” at Lagos. They have another branch at Awo-Omamma in Imo State. They brewery both “33” and Hi malt at Awo-Omamma. They have many depot all over the country which include Enugu, Abakaliki, Por-Harcourt, Markurdi, Aba etc – they develop this depot to make sure that their product are been circulated / reach to their target market. It is from this brewery that “33” and Hi malt are manufactured and distributed to every nook and cranny of the country. The collective success of these two brands in the company’s product portfolio has been responsible for the company’s strength and towering stature. Together, these products have facilitated the strong leadership position of consolidated brewery Plc in the total brewed products market in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years the malt drink market has witnessed the introduction of a variety of malt drink products from various breweries. Many breweries had to diversify their product range to met their overheads make profit and stay in business in a period of recession.

The first malt drink that made in instant market success in Nigeria was Maltex. This product was an imported brand from Europe. Maltex was in fact a household name as it dominated the market in the early and mid 1970’s. Nigerian try to introduce maltina in 1976; then in 1991 consolidated breweries introduced their our Hi malt with the same bottle with maltex. And other malt drink were introduced before and after Hi malt include some are named maltina vita malt, Guinness malt all package in maltex type bottle flooded the market. Except Guinness malt which its bottle is a unique one.

The choice of topics for this thesis is dictated by the scenario pointed above. The major problem of this study therefore is to determine the extent marketing communication can play a role in the marketing communication in the effective of marketing of Hi malt drink.

In this regard, and given the above background, I intend to take on the following sub-problems:

  1. To determine areas of inadequacy in communication and to ascertain whether enhanced communication will teed to effective marketing of the product.
  2. To determine the reach and impact of advertising and buyers and potential consumers.
  3. To investigate whether buyers and potential consumers of the product understand and share the ideas and information directed to them.
  4. To investigate the feedback mechanism as a way of ascertaining that management follows up marketing communication with adequate assessment of level of understanding and acceptability of the message by the public with a new to increasing sales.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of the study are:

  1. To find out marketing communication modes techniques and systems in use of the marketing of Hi malt.
  2. To assess the effectiveness of such modes, techniques and systems in the marketing of the product.
  3. To explain whether barriers and inadequacies in communication and other related factors or impede effective marketing of the product.
  4. To suggest ways of addressing identified problems based on the findings and recommendation better strategies for the effective marketing of Hi malt.

1.4 Research Questions

The following forms are my research question in this study.

  1. Does inadequate communication hamper consumption of Hi malt drink?
  2. To it advertising that influences purchase of Hi malt or is it manufactures good will?
  3. Do barriers to communication affect volume of sales of Hi malt drink.
  4. Does two way communication have the potential to increase the volume of sales of Hi malt?
  5. Will a change in the packaging of Hi malt in lane with bottle type of other malt drink positively effect consumption or shelf display of the product.

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. HO: Effective marketing communication increase customers satisfaction with Hi malt.
    HI: Effective marketing communication does not increase customer satisfactions with Hi malt.
  2. HO: Advertising does not creak awareness for Hi malt in the market.
    HI: Advertising creates awareness for Hi malt in the market
  3. HO: Effective use of personal selling increases customers patronage for Hi malt.
    HI: Effective use of personal selling does not increase customer patronage for Hi malt.
  4. HO: Sales promotion stimulates more purchase of Hi malt on the market.
    HI: Sales promotion does not strumlate more purchase of Hi malt in the market.

1.6 Significance of the Study

We must admit that although more less has been said and written in the importance of marketing communication endence still abound to show that many marketing organizations either do not bother to imbibe and hence pratise basic communication principles or are deficient in the proper skills and rudiments of marketing strategy the result of this state, the respect the researcher aims of focusing the attention of marketing communication.

Today, the emphasis of the Nigeria government is on employment, privatization, commercialization, competition, economic growth an development. Marketing communication has the potentials of stimulating the economy and also improving organizational performance.

It is hoped that the findings of this study and subsequent recommendation will benefit not only the selected organization and performance of its product in the market but other marketing organization and product areas. On the whole, the study is significance became it will be useful to scholars as new problems are likely to be recovered in the processed of investigation.

Finally, this study will contribute to knowledge since the investigation is essentially aimed at problem solving.

1.7 Definition of Terms


The art and science of transmitting, information, idea, attitudes or opinions, facts, instructions, thoughts and images from one person to another or one group to another.

Marketing Communication:

Communication undertaken to persuade others to accept ideas, concepts or things. Marketing communication could use marketing communication could use marketing promotional tools, namely advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and public relations. This is so because promotion is the marketing communication process utilizing personal or non-personal mean to remind, inform and persuade buyers or potential buyers of the organizations products.


A social system or an organized body of persons working together to achieve a common purpose. Examples include business or marketing organization in the context of this study means marketing organization.


Thought, plan, picture in the mind, purpose opinion.


A technical communication fargon for discussing idea formation. It is therefore the thought or an idea which the sender wants to relay to the receiver.


The act of putting the massage together in a certain code or symbols that can be understand by both the source and receiver. These codes or symbols could be words, letters, sentences or signs that represent the idea of the source of communication. Encoding can therefore be described as the transmission by the source of an already conceived idea into a message appropriate for transmission to the recover.


The translation of an encoded message giving it meaning. This is done by the receiver and it is important that there is a clear understanding of the transmuted message.


This refers to the signals sent from the hastener / receiver to the speaker / source in order to tell the speaker how far he is understood and possible report the acceptability or non-acceptability, of the message. It also indicate whether individuals, organizational or consumer behavioural change has taken place as a result of communication.


The ability to bring about the desired or intended result or extent to which it is accomplished.

Media / Channels:

This is the means by which a message travels from sources to a receiver or audience and back. It is the message carrier.


A product is any thing produced by nature or by man which a buyer acquires or purchase to satisfy a need or want. It has to be priced and have value.

Product Portfolio:

Product range, units or group handled by an organization.

External Publics:

Individuals or organization an individuals or an organization communicates with. They includes consumer, communicates, neighbours, dealers, distributors, suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, educators and other publics.


The amount or quantity of product or goods that the consumers with, to purchase at a particular price at a specific time.


Marketing choice or choosing a particular brand from different brands of the same product category or preferring a particular brand in a wide variety of other products of the same product category.

Consumers Perception:

The way Hi malt advertisements are seem be consumers.

Target Market:

Target market is that area where the company’s product is affectively patronized or the area the company’s product is affectively patronized or the area the company expects and plans effectively patronage.

Salesmans / Sales Representatives:

These are able bodied men employed and in some cases trained by a company for the sales of its products through demonstration and personal conviction of customer about the product.

Free Samples:

Free samples are a quantity of a company’s product that are used or given to prospective customers free when the products is new and unknown in the market. It is done to create product awareness.


A budget is a financial / quantitative statement prepared and approved prior to a specific period of operation of an enterprise. It is normally used as guide for production, expenditure and sales.


Activities or activity of securing non-paid significant editorial space, news, stories and features in all media read, reviewed or head by a company’s customers or prospects for the specific purpose of gaining credibility and attention an ultimately meeting the sales goals of the organization.

Sales Promotion:

These are a number of techniques that marketer use to stimulate immediate sales. Thee technique or activities includes contests, trade shows, sampling, and premiums, sales promotion is designed to supplement and co-ordinate person selling and advertising efforts.

Personal Selling:

This is person to person communication meant to assist a sales person personate a prospect to bring a product or to act favourably upon an idea or a cause.


A communication is the media, paid for by an identifiable sponsor and directed at a target audience with the aim of importing information about a product, services, idea or opinion.

Public Relations:

Is a philosophy of management whose aim and objectives is the establishment of understanding report and goodwill between an organization and its public, public relation uses a two way communication system between the organization and its public to achieve its social management philosophy.

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary of Findings

At this point in the process of this research when data has been collected and analyzed, the researcher would want to present his findings.

We now know that consumers are aware of the presence and availability of Hi-malt in the market the proud is visible because its conform package attracts attention and his enhances consumers awareness of the brand along with other brands in the product generic group. Besides, since Hi malt package is differentiated, it lands itself to marketing communication messages. It was observed, however, that in contra-distinction to the consumer posture on packaging that distributors did not like the same bottle size of Hi malt. Distributors also felf that demand for Hi malt could be placed at the average rating in terms of volume of sales. In fact, it was revealed that Hi-malt did not receive an impressive percentage share of the malt drink market.

It was revealed that many of the respondents heard an developed interest in the malt generic product group through communication modes like advertising, printed articles, sales promotion, point of purchases and through oral communication and association with friends. A fact that confirms that consumers are naturally communication conscious and hence marketing communication friendly.

It was further revealed that with regard to the Hi malt brand under research, the respondents heard, saw or read about the product more on bill board and television.

One notable finding, however is that consolidated breweries Plc has come up with innovation in support advertising. The immolation is in the message and its presentation. They have constructed dual purpose structures adjacent to gates of some academic institutions in the Enugu metropolis. The structures serve as waiting room and commuters bus stop for the students over and above all, the structures carry comprehensive message on Hi malt.

This particular outdoor advertisement does not just removed, it perusals, educates and informs. I posit that this is more of a public model of an “open letter” advertisement where the entire argument is made clear.

It was observed from our collected data and analysis that whereas there are various modes techniques and tools of marketing communication in use in the delivery of the Hi malt message. Communication barriers exist which impinge upon te goal of communicating effectively with potential buyers. The greatest barrier was traced to semantics most respondents did not know the meaning of most of the terms used in the Hi malt message and therefore did not understand the message.

The researcher observation revealed that the weekend programme, “Hi malt and sports time’ is designed to provide publicity an to serve as a reminder advert. But in the actual executive of this programme, the presenter appeals to the wrong target. Apart from the exuberance of a few young, potential elites who participate in the programme and the sophisticated language of the presenter, the presenter as a weekly parting ritual toast the public with about one third glass content of Hi malt which he end up taking only a sip. The much we know is that Hi malt is a non-alcoholic fruit and natural malt drink. It is neither wine or spirit. To present Hi malt in the classy manner the presenter do position. It is a class with wine and spirit meant for occasional celebrations. By this demonstration, the message is targeted at the up market where as the product is for the general population and could be bought and consumed more of the time on impulse than planned and purchased for celebration.

The data analysis also revealed that most respondents did not believe in the reminder message. ‘it gives energy” perhaps this attitudinal element explains the level of incomprehension, antipathy and inertia exhibited by consumers. Hence a midst a believe of Hi malt promotional activities the respondents indicated that the positive effect of marketing communication messages was not quite remarkable.

The data analysis further revealed that marketing intermediaries and not contribute to marketing communication efforts. They did not sponsor messages to and Hi malt drink general acceptance and sustainable growth in the market.

5.2 Recommendation

As a follow up to the findings of this research study and as a result of the benefits derivable by the producers of Hi malt, the researcher and other scholars who might like to use it as a reference point, the researcher cleams it worthwhile to proffer a few measures that will aid affective marketing of hi malt through marketing communication.

First and foremost, the corporate planning and public relation department of consolidated breweries plc should see to it that Hi malt is put into its right slot. According to Willnshuret (1979:82).” We can position a product as up-market for the most soplusticated and the bigger spender or down market for ordinary people with limited budgets)” Hi malt should be re-positioned via appropriate semantics and media choice for the effective delivery of advert messages to the target market. It should be repositioned with the status psychology and philosophy of the generality of potential consumers in the down market”. This way the company will immunize wastuge resource either by poor message design or poor media selection.

The reminder message on bill boards and posters should be made more meaningful, believable and recursive by the respondents views, the message should be changed. The researcher would like to recommend that the message in the single should be adopted as a reminder message.

The necessity to phase the Hi malt message in a simple form orer emphasized. If Hi malt is good for papa, good for mama, good for youths and good for everybody, then the reminder message should be believable to the right target audience.

The researcher found out through oral interview that as a matter of fact Hi malt drink has never really been off the market since the product was launched in 1992. when the product was in short supply in the mid 90’s distributors in the Enugu metropolis and neighboring states potently buy the empty bottles because it was not unique to other malt drink like vita malt, maltex, maul tonic etc. this helps the company to gain some shares in the market the packaging is not unique, so it helps distributors to switch brands.

For effective marketing, manufacturers in adopting the push strategy rely on marketing intermediaries to assist in promoting the product consolidated breweries plc should encourage their distributors to adopt marketing communication elements within their resources to stimulate demand for Hi malt in their locality. The distributors should be encouraged to make provision for annual budgets that will allocate a portion of their expected profit earnings to marketing communication activities.

This approach will call for greater locatives and enlightenment from the manufacturer.

A marketing organization conceded about the state of communication with particular customer publics could order communication audit from a public relations practitioner. The essence of the communication audit is the identification of the organizations potential customers and the segmentation of such potential customers in order to be able to design sales messages that should be compatible with the needs and interests of the communication audit will be the inadequacies of marketing communications. The consolidated breweries plc has a reputation to maintain and its corporate image is great. The researcher recommends that the organization should set up a communication audit to smoothen all barriers existing in the design of her sales messages.

5.3 Conclusion

The depth of this study and facts emanating from the study are clear indications of the reference of marketing communication to marketing words can be dynamic and for all practical purposes words also have emotional weight. A word that looks plain and unassuming when written or printed can stir people to action apathy or delight. In communication the basic importance of semantics must never be lost. In communicating and interpreting, marketing communicators live by words. Hence there is the need for marketing communicators to seek mastery of word meanings as users and as under standers for marketing communication activates to stimulate effective marketing, the message must be creative and equally persuasive. We must agree, in the final analysis, that marketing communication is essentially an exercise in information persuasion and influence

5.4 Area for Further Studies

The much the researcher has done is to work within the scope of this study given the limited time and resource available. Some research work know up one new problem or the other. In the case of this study, the researcher has discovered in the process of this investigation that Hi malt drink needs repositioning. A study should be carries out to discover to ensure a continuing market for the product and patronage by the general public.

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