Billboard Advertisement And Patronage Of Detergent Among Young Mothers In Port Harcourt.

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

Billboard Advertisement And Patronage Of Detergent Among Young Mothers In Port Harcourt.


The research explored the billboard advertisement and patronage of detergent among young mothers in Port Harcourt. The basic concern of the research was to find out whether billboard advertisement influence buying habit of consumers and to what extent. Without mincing words, it is obvious that billboard is one of the effective advertising media especially with the introduction of digital billboard that is capable of working like television with motion picture, sound among others. Survey research method was adopted and 180 copies of questionnaires were administered to 180 respondents within Port Harcourt metropolis who were selected using accidental sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed and interpreted using table, frequency and percentage method. It was recommended that billboard should be erected in a strategic place with adequate monitoring to avoid been pulled down by the wind while reasonable font and graphics should be moderately used.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Advertising is one of the tools used for persuasive communication to target audience. Advertising is the communication relayed from companies to persuade an audience to purchase their products. This communication is usually through various forms of paid media…. TV and radio commercials, print advertising, billboards and more.

Every communication is advertising is intended to be persuasive. This becomes clear with the definition of persuasive communication by Osubiyi (1999), which is a conscious attempt by one individual to change the behavior of another individual or groups of individuals through the transmission of some messages. Persuasive communication relates the intention of the communication with resultant behavior of the receiver. Successful persuasive communication produces the desire and behavior while failed ones don’t.

Simply put, advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services usually paid for by identified sponsor.

The key points to note are:

  1. Advertising is non-personal directed to a range of anonymous people.
  2. Usually paid for, this fact differentiates advertising from publicity which is not usually purchased.
  3. For obvious reason, the sponsor of the advertisement is identified.

In fact, in most instances, identifying the sponsor of the advertisement is the prime purpose behind the advert, otherwise why advertise? This is so because by putting their names behind their products or goods, advertisers try hard to fulfill the promise thy claim.

Basically, advertising seek to establish, modify or reinforce attitudes, causing consumers to try a new product, buy more of it or switch brands. Brand advertising seeks to create an image or personality for a product out unique position for it.

The rate of advertising in society is a controversial one, largely because opinions associated with it are heavily interwoven with more fundamental vows and beliefs about how a society does and should operate. Aaker and Myers (1989:503): advertising performs some basic functions in the society, first, it serves the marketing function by helping companies that provide product and service and ideas, sells their products in conjunction with personal selling and sales production. Some advertising however maybe aimed at providing public service because it gives us information about goods and services. No wonder the International Advertising Association states: “to be properly informed, the consumer needs advertising”.

Also, advertising help people learn about new products and service and improvements in existing ones through advertising. Agu (1990) asserts that advertising creates awareness, stimulates demand and encourages greater production and ultimately leading to improvement in the standard of living. Hence, advertising provides consumer education as it ensures national and freedom of choice by consumers. The promotion of free and rational consumer choice is a very important aspect of the informative role of advertising. Practical advertising cannot be complete without a clear understanding and application of the principles of consumer’s behavior.

Advertising has grown as a tool of academic inquiry, a field of professional practice and an index of modern business. It has come to assume the center of modern business marketing strategy. Billboard advertising has assumed a wider and prominent position of product promotion in recent times in Nigeria.

Despite electronic media, billboard advertising got product promotion on the increase and has been dominating the forms of advertising. A result of billboard advertising has emerged as it is recognized by the advertisers as a subsidiary of the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). But has been articulated by Adeyemi (1969) the constitutional provisions on freedom of expression can be said to amount only to an orderly freedom of which cannot be used as a license to spread communication that debased public morality.

However, many of these ethical principles have in the course of time, grown to become statutory regulation codified laws. Decree 55 of 1988 among other provisions provides that APCON show regular and control of the practices of advertising in all aspects and ramification. It is in this immense and wide power conferred on it that APCON developed a code of ethics to guide and regulate the practice of advertising in Nigeria which accommodated in no small measure the use of billboards as a way of communicating messages to the masses.

The increase in billboard advertising underscores the effectiveness of billboard on product promotion. Billboards are usually located at point with high vertical and human traffic. Consequently, users of such points are regularly exposed to the advertisement in the board. Secondary, billboards also offers a high degree of locational flexibility. In other words, the boards can be placed where the advertisers actually intended them to be. In addition, they tend to have lower cost per thousand than most of the other media. They are usually more cost efficient, especially for the advertiser with a small budget. Billboards offer the advantages of very good colour reproduction and at the small time, it is an effective reminder medium offer servicing as a catalyst for buyers who buy in impulse.

The greatest problem encountered by advertisers and their agencies with regard to billboard is site monitoring is usually deficient and so when posters get torn or washed out, it takes a while to discover and repost. This is because the site are usually scattered around very far geographical locations.

The posters used on the boards are usually tedious to print and post especially when numbers of sites to be covered are too many. In other words, boards make intense creative demands on the agency because they are usually seen in a fleeting second, they have to be powerfully executed so as to intrude on the passer-by’s consciousness. In this case, they tend to function better as a reminder media and execute the primary and the sole medium for an advertising campaign. Aside its cost efficient, it contributes to environmental aesthetic and enduring feature of landscape of towns in the country.

Again, if one glances down the major lengths in the streets in port harcourt, you will notice the presence of WAW detergent advertising billboard just to help the flag flying and to make sure that the consumers will remain and always patronize their products.

This study also hopes to establish the contribution of billboard to promote business.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The problem of this research work deals mainly on how billboard advertising can develop the print media. We know advertising revenue is one of the strongholds and pillars supporting the various print media and that without advertising revenue most print media houses will collapse especially private media houses.

The research works explains how billboard advertising sustains print media and to which extent and level do billboard advertising promote products and services advertised.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine billboard advertisement and patronage of detergent among young mothers in Port Harcourt.

The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. To find out if advertisers in Port Harcourt metropolis patronize billboard advertising.
  2. To determine the effectiveness of billboard advertising on WAW detergent product provision and promotion.
  3. To find out whether it carries the same message with other media in the same product.
  4. To find out the contribution of billboards to environmental beauty or otherwise.

1.4 Research Questions

For this research work, the following questions were raised by the researcher:

  1. Do Port Harcourt advertisers patronize billboard advertising?
  2. How does billboard advertisement influence consumers of WAW detergent in Port Harcourt metropolis?
  3. To what extent do billboard advertising messages reinforce electronic and print media messages?
  4. How far does billboard advertising contribute to environmental beauty?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The research hypotheses are seen as follows:

  1. H1: Port Harcourt advertisers do patronize WAW detergent billboard advertising.
    H0: Port Harcourt advertisers do not patronize WAW detergent billboard advertising.
  2. H2: Billboard advertising does influence consumers of WAW detergentin Port Harcourt metropolis.
    H0: Billboard advertising does not influence consumers of WAW detergentin Port Harcourt metropolis.
  3. H3: Billboard advertising message do reinforce electronic and print media messages.
    H0: Billboard advertising message do not reinforce electronic and print media messages.
  4. H4: Billboard advertising do contribute to environmental beauty.
    H0: Billboard advertising do not contribute to environmental beauty.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study brings to our knowledge the degree of influence other product promotion activities and advertising exerts on billboard advertising.

The study will also serve as a guide to manufacturers and advertisers in their day to day management of product promotion via WAW detergent billboard advertising. On the other hand, this study will also serve as good feasibility study for perspective investors in billboard advertising sub-sector.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The study is limited to the Port Harcourt metropolis. It is chosen as the area in carrying out the research in this project and all research done within the study are limited to Port Harcourt metropolis.

Due to the problem of time and money, the researcher may also encounter certain other limitations such as the problem of having to manage class work with the research work as well as the problem of gathering enough materials for the study. But in spite of this, the researcher will make sure that all this problems are managed well in order to come up with a good result that can be a plus to the area of study.

1.8 Definitions of Terms (Operational)

a. Impact:

This refers to the average number of Port Harcourt residents that the picture and wording of WAW detergent billboard have made a striking impression on.

b. Billboard:

This refers to a large sign used for advertising of products and services.

c. Promotion:

This is the publishing and advertising of product tangible or intangible. This is the placement of WAW detergent billboard in strategic places in Port Harcourt metropolis.

d. Product:

This is a bundle of utility offered to the consumer by a profit and non-profit organizations.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In our present capitalist society whose economics depends on the exchange of goods and services complaints, competitive advertising of products and business powers the “engine of our economy, fostering economic growth and creating jobs in many industries”, Bran (1982). Many practice and behavior exist in our competitive market where the taste of consumers plays a vital role in the designing, pricing production and promotion of goods and services. Basically, the aim of this study has been to capture the impact of billboard advertising in product promotion.

The study revealed that billboard advertising creates awareness of products and services, influence consumers of product and services in their choice of product. Billboard advertising also contribute to nation’s environmental beautification and economic growth.

This study also indicated that billboard advertising messages carries and reinforces electronic and print media messages.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the research conducted by the researcher, it revealed billboard advertising as one of the most important tool for product promotion. It is most suited for intensively distributed impulse goods bought by advertisers by brand name.

According to the research being studied, there is no doubt that billboard advertising promote product and services, billboard creates awareness of product existence especially the newly introduced goods.

Again, billboard generally influences consumer’s decision because it uses irresistible, simple, short and easily understandable slogans that are easy to read and understand making it viewer friendly.

However, billboard advertising should be patronized by advertisers because it do not contradict other advertising messages, thereby it carries the same message on products and services with radio and television, etc.

Government should support billboard advertising because it contributes to economic growth and environmental beautification.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations were made.

  1. APCON should monitor and control advertisers that uses billboard in order for them to follow all the advertising laws and ethics.
  2. Outdoor Advertising Association of Nigeria (OAAN) should endeavor that sites where billboards are cited should be monitored to avoid billboard constituting problems.
  3. Advertisers should patronize billboard advertising because it is powerful and intrude on the passer-by’s consciousness. Billboard tends to function as reminder media.
  4. Government should also encourage and support billboard advertising because it contributes to environmental aesthetics and national economic growth.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Should advertising to children be banned in Sweden?

The Swedish government views advertising to children as morally and ethically unacceptable, since children have difficulty distinguishing between the purpose of advertising and other modes of communication. [74] In Belgium, it is forbidden to broadcast commercials during children’s programs as well as during the 5 minutes before and after them.

What do young children think about advertising?

Numerous studies have documented that young children have little understanding of the persuasive intent of advertising. Prior to age 7 or 8 years, children tend to view advertising as fun, entertaining, and unbiased information. 

How much money is spent on advertising to children each year?

It is estimated that over $1 billion is spent on media advertising to children, mostly on television. [28] In addition, over $4.5 billion is spent on youth-targeted promotions such as premiums, sampling, coupons, contests, and sweepstakes.

How do cigarette brands advertise in youth magazines?

Ads for cigarette brands popular with youth were selectively placed in magazines with large youth readerships. Promotional materials (caps, sports bags, lighters with cigarette brand logos), sweepstakes, and premiums were commonly used.

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