Production Of Soap And Detergent Through Cold Process

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Production Of Soap And Detergent Through Cold Process


Today, in every market exists different types of soap and detergents. Some of them are not efficacious as advertised because the ingredients of such soaps are not always in the right proportion and as such the efficacy of active ingredients is not rendered. it is now generally accepted that soap produced using linear alkyl benzine sulphonate has a high brodegralbility effect.It describes cold-process saponification using different fats and oils. Shea nut oil (SAP value:183.9mgKOH/g), groundnut oil (SAP value:187.7mgKOH/g) and Tallow (SAP value: 140.3mgKOH/g) were used. Colour, texture, lathering and cleansing power of the prepared soaps were analyzed. shea butter soap had the best lathering capacity. The groundnut oil soap had the most effective cleaning power. The soaps were also recommended for household use. This activity was also provided to share a delight in chemistry with senior school students and to actively engage them in hands-on-active learning.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Aim And Objectives
  • 1.4 Significance Of Study
  • 1.5 Limitation Of Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Full Boiling:
  • 2.2 Cold Process
  • 2.3 Different Types Of Soaps
  • 2.4 Different Types Of Soap Making Oils
  • 2.5 Castor Oil
  • 2.6 Olive Oil
  • 2.7 Neem Oil

Chapter Three

Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Preparation Of Tallow From Animal Fat
  • 3.2 Saponification Procedure
  • 3.3 Analytical Method
  • 3.4 Saponification Value
  • 3.5 Iodine Value
  • 3.6 Acid Value
  • 3.7 ph Determination
  • 3.8 Foam Ability Tests
  • 3.9 Test For Effectiveness In Cleaning

Chapter Four

Results And Discussion

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid, made by hydrolyzing fats and oils with caustic alkali (cook 1964). Soap acts as a good cleansing agent in soft water, at an interphase of greasy and water. In hard water soap reacts with the mague sum and calcium ions to form insoluble precipitate (scum), which lowers the cleansing effect of the soap. This abnormality in soap led to the introduction of synthetic detergent.
Detergents are sodium salts of an acid. They are substance that causes oil or grease to form emulsions in water so that soap acts as a cleansing agent.

A soap is also a salt of a compound, known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group on one end, which has ionic bond with metal ion, usually sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is non polar which is highly soluble in non polar substances and the ionic end is soluble in water.

The cleaning action of soaps because of their ability to emulsify or disperse water-insoluble materials and hold them in the suspension of water. This ability is seen from the molecular structure of soaps. When soap is added to water that contains oil or other water-insoluble materials, the soap or detergent molecules surround the oil droplets. The oil is, dissolved in the alkyl groups of the soap molecules while the ionic end allows it to be dissolved in water. As a result, the oil droplets are to be dispersed throughout the water and can be washed away.
A number of things affect the soap-making process and the quality of this soap produced. The characteristics of this soap depend on the quality of oil, and the amounts of the caustic soda and water used to make it. The speed of the reaction between the oil and the caustic soda is influenced by free fatty acid content of the oil, the heat of the components before mixing, and how vigorously the mixing is to be done. Free fatty acid contents, vigorous mixing, and heat, speed up the given soap-making process.

Castile soap:

A mild soap originally made in Spain with pure olive oil. Today many “castile” soaps are made with other vegetable oils. Castile is agood cleanser, producing a rich lather.

Cream soaps:

Soaps containing cold cream materials, and moisturizers. Cream soaps are good for dry and delicate skin

Deodorant soap:

Are soaps to which antibacterial agents have been added to reduce odor-causing bacteria.

Floating soaps:

Soaps which have air bubbles incorporated have low density. This causes the bar to float.

Hypo-allergenic soaps:

Mild formula soaps, low in potent irritants. They generally produce a poor lather.

Milled soaps:

These are the most commonly used, mass produced soaps. Milling is referred to the mixing of colour and soap flakes.

Oatmeal soap:

A rough textured soap to which oatmeal has been added as a mild abrasive and lather. Good for and normal skin.

A good soap is biodegradable when it does not contain chemicals that cannot be made to their natural elements. Neither does it contain chemicals that can be harmful to the environment or cause undue destruction to the environment.

  1. A good soap gets dissolved easily and remove stains from the clothes, human skin or any material being cleaned.
  2. It gets dissolved in water and produces enough suds.
  3. It gives a clear and sparkling kind of cleanliness.
  4. It gives a pleasant smell.
  5. A good soap does not leave sticky traces on the clothes or on the skin.
  6. It has a good color that is even and does not streak.
  7. It does not damage the fibers or textiles.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

The process of soap production using linear alkyl benzene sulphonate is time consuming, and this posed a little problem. Also raw materials and equipment used in carrying out the production was costly and may be beyond the reach of the average citizens.

1.3 Aim And Objectives

The major aim of this research work is to produce soaps and detergent of high quality, using the cold process.

1.4 Significance Of Study

This research is designed to examine the methods used in the production of soaps and detergent and its economic importance.

1.5 Limitation Of Study

The cost and acquisition of materials were major factors that affected this research project adversely.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

From this experiment the students have increased their knowledge of the organic chemistry of soaps. Students were engaged in conversations and have expressed their feelings such as “I learn how to combine, many fats and oils to get soaps”. The students also appreciated how the modern day chemistry when blended with old tradition, accuracy and knowledge of the right ingredients and suitable methods yield the desired results. Another student remarked that he enjoyed the soaps; they wash more effectively than most commercial soaps he used to purchase from the market.

5.2 Recommendation

Soap production can be regarded as one area of business that is lucrative and needs only little capital to start with, and considering the vast available resources in Nigeria there is need to design and develop strategy on war footing in order to explore and utilize full benefits of these raw materials using the available indigenous technology.

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