Financial Problems Facing Small Scale Industries (A Case Study Of Global Soap And Detergent Industry Asa-Dam Road Ilorin)
1.1 Background of the Study
One of the prominent features of the economic structure of most developing countries is the small side contribution to government development plan made by industrial sector. Consequently, many of those countries are presently faced with problem of formulating and implementing a well conceived programmed a industrial development plan that will reverse the unfortunate trend ensuring that this dream of a perfect, integrate and consistent patter of industrialization is achieved, such storage must be appropriate to these countries condition and levels of development. It is in this line that small scale industry has been recommended to fill the gap.
The theme of this study is financial problem facing small scale industries is Kwara state. The study aims at throwing more light on the basic problem facing small scale industries which is relevant to the Nigeria economy and by viewing the available source of finance in some small scale industries in Kwara state.
Moreover, the present economic situation in the country calls for serious attention to be paid to diversification. A situation where a country depends mainly on a single product for the foreign exchange earning is dangerous. Hence, any effort to develop the impact substituting industries should be encouraged small industries present an opportunity for the country to provide locally and therefore limit to a considerable extent the drain on our foreign exchange.
Lastly, any measure for developing the rural urban migration should pay a greater attention to the public and development of the small scale industries.
1.2 Importance of Small Scale Industries
It could be right to also why the research the study important.
The importance of the study originated from the single fact that finance is the life wire of any business. It can be looked at as the ability to purchase things. Finance is sued by a business in its operation just as much as labour and materials purchasing power can transfer from one person to another by lending of money and can thus, be supplied to business of a price just as physical goods and services of labour. Like market and labour finance should be bought in the favourable market and used in the most effective and economical ways
Also the important of small scale industries is better evaluated against the background of the objective laid up for it in peculiar circumstances prevailing in various countries of the world especially it’s contribution towards removal of bottlenecks and other inhibition of industrial growth). Among its very grant importance is its contribution toward removal of indigenous entrepreneur initiative for modern industrial development as emerging industrialist build up their potential in the small scale industries for the greater task of industrial management.
The prevalent problems of shortage of funds skilled labour is steamed through the encouragement and establishment of industries requiring affordable capital and skilled labour of small scale industries.
The problem of limited market is involved through localization of production centers is primary market area. The income and therefore effective demand of the people is increased through increased employment for the rural labour force.
Furthermore, the scheme permits special earliest facilities to be given the establishment that have nothing to attract the instructional credit agencies and these facilities the acquisition of machinery raw material factory accommodation as well as encouraging manpower training.
Also, the inform, choice of ambitions industrialist in term of technology industry or product lines plant size equipment product process will be greatly reduced when they have personally experienced small specialize industries with requirements commitment and risk.
Management techniques are also advanced in the small scale industries to facilitate the growth of management and marketing potential of indigenous industrialists as to be able absorb demand change of the growing and complex society.
Small businesses also pre-empty the used lack of knowledge on standard and appealing product designs that are common with small scale industrialists of developing countries.
Lastly, fervently hope that useful ideas would come out for investors on the source of finance and obtaining some when required.
1.3 Scope of the Study
As earlier mentioned the focus of this study was financial problem facing small scale industries in Kwara state the research project examine and studies the related problem and prospects in the investment of small scale industries in Kwara state with particular reference to Global soap and detergent industries Ilorin located in Ilorin the state capital and as a barometer of activities of small scale industries in other divisional head quarter and in Nigeria at larger. This research work has therefore enunciated the back problem setting small scale industries in raising funds to finance its programme.
Moreover, the questionnaires which have been distributed and filled deals with certain questions aimed to prove social background of the respondent as it can affect their business life. Other special questions deal with capitalization staff straight government role in is development, assistance needs and recommendations.
Information have been collected from the ministry or trade and industry, Kwara state investment corporations federal ministry of trade business registration units official sets.
However in view of the fact that only fifty small scale industries have been served questionnaire all of which were located in Ilorin Township it was not possible to make a broad nationwide generalizations of the result obtained.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
The small scale industries are still faced with many problems which stand as obstacles to it rapid growth in Kwara state. The factors which constitute the main obstacles to the industries growth may be categorized as management, technical, commercial and financials.
The management problem arises from the one stated ability of the manager/owner of the business or enterprises. The problem of finding the right success or to him often his retirement or debt and the shortage or absence of staff/officer capable of advising him on management policies, this limited education and training and the rural and sub-urban nature of his functions allocation further deny him access to modern management limited technical and possibilities make the risk of lending money to small industries very high, in return the shortages of busies capital further aggravate the technical , commercial and managerial problems .
Given the necessary of Intensive supervision by a body interested with control supervision of small scale industries. They can grow up and contribute immensely to the industrial and economic growth of the state and the whole country.
1.5 Aims and Objectives of the Study
In the setting up of small scale industries, the main purpose of the government was to ensure larger flow of assistance to the small scale units. To meets this objective, the immediate thrust of the small scale industries was on the following measures:
- Initiating steps for technological up gradation and modernization of existing units.
- Expanding the channels for marketing the products of the small scale sector; and
- Promotion of employment-oriented industries, especially in semi-urban areas to create more employment opportunities and thereby checking migration of population to urban areas.
Small scale industries provides assistance to the small scale industries sector in the country through the existing banking and other financial institutions, such as, state financial corporations, state industrial development corporations, commercial banks, cooperative banks and RRBs etc. The major functions of small scale industries are given below:
- It refinances loans and advances provided by the existing lending institutions to the small-scale units.
- It discounts and rediscounts bills arising from sales of machinery to and manufactured by small scale industries units.
- It extends seed capital/soft loan assistance under National Equity fund, Mahila Udyam Nidhi and Mahila Vikas Nidhi and seed capital schemes.
- It grants direct assistance and refinance loans extended by primary lending institutions for financing exports of products manufactured by small-scale units.
- It provides services like factoring, leasing etc. to small units.
- It extends financial support to the state small industries corporations for providing scarce raw materials to and marketing the products of the small-scale units.
- It provides financial support to National small industries corporation for providing; leasing, hire purchase and marketing help to the small-scale units.
The managerial and technical problem facing the small scale industries in the state can be improved upon if not totally stopped by the assistance of the small scale industrial credit scheme and industrial development center by organizing training and service.
In conclusion with the industrial training find for various entrepreneur in the state so as to improved and open them to modern manage and technical training which participants of the services in their industries productivity, also, the traditional advice offered but the industrial development center will also solve the managerial technical problems of the various in-industry list.
The training and seminars can either be twice or thrice in a years. The financial problem can actually be reveals even now that the federal government has reduces the interest on loan to small scale industries in the country which will now encourage many small scale industrialist to borrow for industrial development as well as reduce them from borrowing either to expand or set a new small scale industry.
Through the trade associations for small business government and government subsidized institution technical financial as commercial information can be made available to the small scale industries.
In addition, banks and various other external advisers can help as much as possible to fill the gap in the management function and contribution to the quality of decision made and the production techniques adopted by these industries.
In conclusion, the small scale industrialist required a lot of encouragement from financial institution and government and not gives enough data for the researcher.
1.7 Historical Background of the Case Study
Global soap and detergent industry Nigeria limited, Ilorin, Kwara state is situated along Asa-dam industry layout in Ilorin town, and the company is a limited liability company under the chairmanship / managing director of Dr. Samuel Adedoyin. The global soap industry was established in 1985 as a division of Doyin Group of Companies. It was incorporated in 1984 as the first indigenous detergent industry. The company has its head quarter in Lagos, production started at the company in December 1985. The pioneering product lines of the company are flash detergent, Grant soap, Sash-rite detergent and Bar soap. Other products such as Hi-clean, scurrying powder, vogue soap were later added to existing ones. The recently introduced ones were Super deal detergent and Dento clean. Three years after the commencement, its brand was awarded with Nigeria institute of standard quality certificate in 1988 in recognition of the industry’s performance from the information given by one of the top management personnel about four reasons were given which added to the establishment of the company and particularly in Kwara state.
Firstly, that the proprietor is from Kwara state. In establishing a company is the state, is to reduce the problem of unemployment in this state. Another reason for setting up of the company is for the profit object and its service as a source of capital market.
Also, the proprietor wishes to meet the demand for the citizens of the country in quality and quantity and is possible to extent its supply to other African sub-regions where the need for the product is inexistence.
Lastly, the monopoly being enjoyed by foreign investors like close-up by lever brothers makes of super blue. Omo is reduced to certain extent monopoly by going into the production of detergent. Because of the reason explained above. The proprietor wishes to produce or join other producers for soap and detergent making.
1.8 Definition of Terms and Concepts
1. Small Scale Business:
Is a privately owned and operated business, characterized by a small number of employees, and low turnover. A small enterprise usually only shares a tiny segment of the market it operates in.
An entrepreneur is a person who organizes and manages a business undertaking, assuming the risk for the sake of profit. An entrepreneur sees an opportunity makes a plan, starts the business manages the business and receives the profits.
It is an employment of a person in some occupation, business, trade or profession etc. the nation of desiring to be employment can be explained by taking three established facts which are:
- Working hours
- Wage rate
- A man’s state of health.
4. Economic Growth:
This is defined as the positive change in the level of production of goods and services by a country over a certain period of time. Nominal growth is defined as economic including inflation while real growth is nominal growth minus inflation economic growth usually brought about by technological innovation and positive external forces.
Production concept is a concept where goods are produced without taking into consideration in choices or tastes of your consumers. It is one of the earliest marketing concepts where goods were just produced on the belief that they will be sold because consumers.
It is designed as the organisation or economic system where goods and services are exchanged for one of another or for money. Every business requires some form of investment and enough customers to whom its output can be sold on a consistent basis in order to make a profit.
The production side of business activity is referred as industry. It is a business activity which is related to the raising, producing, processing or manufacturing of products.
It is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money.
Recommendations and Conclusion
The decision to start a business of your own is an easy one, especially where one considers the problem intent in the decision it was observed during the research study that most of the obstacle in the way of following recommendations was implemented.
- FINANCE / CAPITALIZATION: people must be encouraged to form the habit of saving with the bank however small scale their income may be since people who save with banks are always given loans to finance their business .
- SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES CREDIT SCHEME : The government must improve on the administration of the loan scheme by introducing stricter penalties for details and the loan should be secured on fixed asset. In order to ensure smooth running off the credit section and entrance its resolving nature.
- Banker must be advised to give loans to small scale industries, especially those who wish to engage in the production of semi–finished goods which can be produced weekly. More publicity needs to be made especially among he industrials banks like N, D,B, NACB and “YBC” as to be loan opportunity available to the small scale industries both for establishment and expansion purpose.
- VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATION: The small scale industries should be encouraged to form association to be organized on composite and trade basis aid in local and state levels. This will provide a common forum of the exchange of information and ideas.
They can also under take professional, technical and management advice, studies surely researched and common service facilities among their members this explore wider market for the product, made representation to and hold consultations with local state and even the federal government and other bodies interested in small scale industrial development these association if effective and greater promote the welfare of small scale industries and protect their interest and development in the future particularly promote the welfare of small scale industries and protect their interest and development in he future particularly if they also concern themselves with such problems as management skills consultancy , proper keeping of accounting good financial administration quality of control and sales promotion.
The most laudable things that happen in recent times the graduate self employment of the federal government, whereby the government guarantee the banks and encourage them to make available moderate business loan to the young Nigerians with viable small scale business proposal and idea. This is very current and should be explored further through the ministry of labour employment and productivity.
The financial problem has their origin in the humble circumstances of the small scale industrialist and his disabilities in making maximum use of resources of the organized financial sector . To be consistence with previous section, universal remedies to these problems are considered in three part compromise of the bank the government and the small scale proprietors.
1. The Banks
The high rate of failure among small scale industries and default in loan repayment among many of the surging once make financial institution to be making loan available to small scale borrowers.
Furthermore, after a loan has been granted unexpected development can occur while give rise to temporary difficulties such difficulties can ruin the success of a good business unless timely assistance is given. Hence it is advantages that the bank should have continuing interest in its small scale borrower who should be visited regularly to see how he his coping.
The bank could do much more to help small scale client in the preparation of feasibility studies and lead them step by step on how the project to be implemented should be undertaken, in this way the bank should be sure that loan will be repaid with interest as they fall due.
2. The Government
As part of the solution to under capitalization of small enterprises, government as been urged to set up small business loan guarantee scheme which will encourage the flow of loans to small scale enterprises by reducing the risk element in loan to this category of borrower. The need for this scheme has greater urgency now than before because increasing financial difficulties of small scale under SFEM/FEM.
The fear of survival of the small scale business under SFEM arises from the naira exchange rate which has evolved since commencement of SFEM /FEM.
Furthermore, small firm are likely to be at a disadvantages in competition for foreign exchange with large firm. This problem certainly calls for special concession to aid small scale enterprises.
In the era of SFEM the role of government would be to aid the procurement of foreign exchange. This kind of motivation is most helpful in creating the right atmosphere for thriving small scale industries on large scale. Other measurement that this approach brings to mind and the suggested bulk purchase by government of selected raw materials for sales to small industries. This should help to reduce their frustration and uncertainty. Similarly establishment by government make use of factory space which can be rented to small industries becomes most relevance given that there are only a few industrial estate in the country.
3. The Small Scale Proprietors
The high rate of failure and default in loan repayment which discourage banks from lending to small scale industries result mainly from poor management. In order to improve those already in the business needs to be educated in order to cater more adequately for the financial requirement of the small scale entrepreneur use of the second-tier market (SSM) a vehicle for intermediating investment fund as been advocated in addition to existing source of funds.
Participating in second-tier market offers the advantages of a greater scope of raising capital through Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE). This is particularly important since the financial needs of small scale and medium scale sub-sector is not being met by government sponsored loans not from banking industries.
The second-tier security market is also an idea training ground for eventual graduation to the first- tier market by indigenous enterprises.
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