The Impact Of Promotion On Marketing Of Detergent Product (A Case Study Of PZ Industries Enugu)

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

The Impact Of Promotion On Marketing Of Detergent Product (A Case Study Of PZ Industries Enugu)


This project work was on the impact of promotion on marketing of detergent product. A case study of pz industries Enugu.

The objective of the study include the following

  1. To find out if pz industries considered promotion as varitable tool for their product
  2. To ascertain the impact of promotion on the marketing of detergent with peculiar preference to elephant extra detergent by pz industries
  3. To also determine whether the marketing communication media and channel used by pz industries in the market of elephant extra detergent is generating future benefits
  4. And to suggest of improving promo tools campaign for pz industeis to enable them make effective promotion of its goods and services

Based on these, the researcher made a critical analysis and evaluation of promo tool used by industries within Enugu metropolis. And also reviewed related material and used research instrument for the collection of primary and secondary data.

The population of the study consist of the staff and the customer of pz industries within Enugu metropolis. Data collected were used in formulation of findings the researcher under the study used direct question and observation to obtain information form the respondent. Form the obtain information. The following findings and recommend were made.

That promotion has great impact on the promotion lead to increase in sales, purchasing, steady growth and profit maximization of any firm.

And that no company can do without using promotion as one of their important tools especially pz industries.

The following recommendation were made

  1. The firm should increase the promotional campaign
  2. Also, increase its marketing strategy
  3. Clearly define communication objective
  4. Also, involve on product research and development.

In conclusion, the impact of promotion on the marketing of detergent product should be vital ingredient to spur the management of various detergent firm into greater commitment toward the welfare of their customers. In terms of product dissemination and development which satisfy customer needs and wants.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of Study

In the earlier days the partner of salesmanship was cried because of the gap between productive and consumption sectors of the society was small and manageable.

However in retrospect of the country economic history reviewd that there were companies in the early 1960s and 1970s that actually made aggressive trust into Nigeria market and as much there pioneer producer, in cause of this producers were mainly concerned with the development of a good product and services to satisfy the needs and the wants of the target market.

During the era of industrial revolution the world has grown into ocmpetion, high level of economic and technological development have occasionally incrased sophistication among both proderces and the consumer. This has resulted into the widening of the gap between them have a challenge to both ends to device a more appropriate method of improving the relationship between them.

According to Kotler 1993, page 12, the product concept which held that consumer will favour those product that are widely available and low in price, managers of production oriented organization concentrate on achieveing highly production efficiency and distribution coverage. This concept of course eventually led to the production of different kind of product in Nigerian markets.

It was really an economic of plenty were both the consumer and the distributors have plenty monety to spend no matter the product condition. Consequently, one of the major communication force that manifested to help bridge the gap between the producer and the consumer was the act of promotion through it was low and at the direction of the top management at a reduced cost control.

The early 1980s market the first decade of economic recession in the country that led to change to a lower production capacity in the countries gross national product (GNP). Oil price dropped sharply to unprecedented level and different kind of trade restriction was introduced.

For instance federal government of Nigeria to restructure the economy introduced structural adjustment programme (SAP). Companies as well as individual started to geel the pinch, the recession, decreasing of wages, rising prices of goods and service in position of tariff and taxes.

Having regard to the consumer dwinding deposable income and large amount of goods produced and not produce, manufacturer started to realize the important of promotion create awareness of their product and to persuade the consumers and distributor channels, that their products are best in town that can satisfy the need and want of the consumer of the target market.

Promotion becomes the whole integral part of our social and economic system but has also grown over the years to assume tremendous proportion both as a business activity and a social phenomenon. It has affected not only business but also the whole security. Because of promotion influence people learned to desire better product and services to take care of their health and to improve their ways of living.

One can them ask what is promotion according to an impact in their promotion decision to depend on elephant extra as their brand detergent if so to what extent?

1.2 Objective of the Study

The dictionary definition of the term “impact” as will be in this study means “power to act” or have an effect on the mind of / or get result form anything. The research us to ascertain the impact of promotion on the marketing of detergent with peculiar preference to elephant extra detergent by pz countries as a case study.

  1. To find out of pz industries considered promotion as tool for their product.
  2. To finding out if promotion communicates the massage of pz industries detergent product to the target market.
  3. To determine the degree and nature of the effect of elephant extra detergent and product awareness and conviction on the consumers buying habits
  4. To determine whether the marketing communication media use by pz industries in the market of elephant extra detergent is generating future benefits
  5. To suggestion of improving promotion tools campaign for pz industries to enable them make effective promotion of its goods and service

1.3 Research Question

The following are the research question of the study

  1. How effective is promotion in the marketing of elephant extra detergent product?
  2. Has promotion any effect in increasing the volume of sales of elephant extra detergent.
  3. Is promotional design and layout of elephant extra detergent influence consumers re – purchases
  4. Has adequate promotion lead to consumer loyalty to elephant extra detergent product?
  5. Is product promotion an important marketing strategy to pz industries?

1.4 Significance of Study

Most of the factors that combine to make this study necessary and relevant to presently economic realities of Nigeria will be treated in this study generally. Marketing promotion are variables used by company to create or induce sales awareness for a given product or service. These are person selling, sales promotion, advertising, public relation and publicity are sales marketing on its own parts, promotion teams up with product development, product pricing and physical distribution to constitute the four parts that make up a company total market strategy. Form the perspective, but advertising is seen as a subset of company marketing effort.

This however is not correct, the importance of promotion to transparency, it position the strategy set up. The importance command towards is success or failure of the companies product and hence its survival can best be seen from the fact that as far back as 1986 or eighteen billion dollars wab been alone. Even in Nigeria million of naira is industries spend a struggling #4.6million detergent in 1990 alone. The mere fact that out to promotional agent or companies protrude to marketing communication to be not been channeled into an unproductive and non rewarding venture. In determining the effectiveness probably some questions may be raised like, what are the characteristics how can the effectiveness of promotion be an effective tools of communication? This is in line with Ameachi view 1991 (p.5). when he observe that effective promotion message to identified target audience at the right time. The most effective cost toward the realization of the set marketing objective and most forms has then marketing objective to increase sales objective is further clarified in the word of Femi Adeniyi, Williams in Okigbo, (1990) p.3. that the bottom line for an effective promotion should demand action that will lead to a good sales. with this creation in the mind of most promoters, if not all, the only paramount role and the only objective the marketing promotion should objective the marketing promotion should accomplish is to increase its market shame and subsequent sharing increase sales. this accomplishment of sales objective may be either on short term or long term basis before an promo tools above good and effective if must provide some information objective to recall in future terms of the target market, availability services, qualified price and direction of use etc.

He further added that effective promotion must fulfill certain criteria, and this criteria he represented with the AIDCA principles as A = attention I = interest, D = desire, c = creditability, A + ACTION>
He also informed that there is also the PAPA formula which is more popular in the united states which visual and oral messages are address to selected public for the purpose of informing and influencing them to buy product or services to act or to be inclined to cut favourable toward ideal persons or items, trade market on institution featured.

On the whole, one of the accepted definite of promotion seem to be the one given by American market association 1948, when he says that promotion is any paid form of non personal presentation of goods, service or ideas for an identified sponsor. That means that promo tools are communication force that can persuade and convice people to prefer a particular product to the other so long as the product are affordable by the target consumers. All the forgong determination about a specific goods or services or idea from a sponsor who has paid for such communication and has choosen the appropriate medium be thinks will deliver it effectively to his target audience. Base on this fact, it is important to note that marketing communication has become veritable factors in promoting a firms product offer whether or its target market.

Marketing promotion is perhaps the most conspicuous of all marketing activities use by firm to fulfill their promotional task.

Thus, it is a general form of presentation of goods, service and ideas conducted through media sales consultation, sales call, television, newspaper, bill board, coupon offer discounts, hand bills, electronic media, postal agents, cable marketing, seminars etc.

Moreover, most promo tools are designed to indicates other tools through inter – related or inter woven they function together by informing, persuading, reminding and inducing, reassuring, reinforcing and establishing positive attitude and image toward product and a company.

That means promotion enhance the potential response to the company activities.

The communication role in a marketing of an individual company depends on the type of product, the nature of its market, the competitive marketing environment of various detergent companies and various applications of marketing variable b different firms.

Many firms have been into promotion for a very long time, although most of such promotion is vocal .but today the dynamic nature and expansion of business has modernized its means for instance, hawkwer crises, sold various product made public announcement and chanted many promotional signs, symbols which were also used in early communication to identify products and services.

Nevertheless, the basic reason for employing the techniques used in communication today as used in the ancient days was to disseminate information and ideas to a group of people and to influence or reinforce an existing attitude in our knowledge of promotion in the ancient day was nature fragmentary. The discouraging of archaeology has turned up evidence that the romans a predecessors learnt the importance of maining communication. That mean marketing communication was been whole of the firm relationship with the society. There has been of course development of technique but the basic principles have remained primarily constant perhaps one of the significant shift emphasis over the countries have been the transaction, unorganized promotion from the artiste to the commercial.

Marketing promotion or communication has gone beyond mans understanding, in the sense that the period of the great change has added deeper and more comprehensive understanding of promotion. Hence, influencing a lot of buyers and sells behaviour with reference to the purchase of elephant extra detergent product.

1.5 Statement of the Problem

The statement of the problem of research work in the impact if promotion on the marketing of detergent product in Enugu metropolis.

Promotional tools message that try to position the unique feature or qualities of a product or service in the mind of a consumer / customer.

The fact remain that after a firm has produced the best product packaged brilliantly, priced it attraction made it readily available in the market, it must tell its successful stories to the target audience (Nnolim 1998 p86).

Moreover, there seems to be a serious competition in the detergent product industries in the country for all the detergent industries in the country, for all the detergent companies are seriously producing different type and band of detergent such as Win, Ariel Blue Omo, Elephant extra detergent etc.

Based on this assumption, consumers seem to be confused as to which brand of detergent product has the best quality. Hence promotion as a mean of communication with its persuasive ability has a tremendous influence on people, therefore pz industries is not an exception in the marketing of its elephant extra detergent, the problem here is to find out whether the promotional tools message being bombard on consumers with in Enugu metropolis by various detergent product advertiseries have that P = promise, A = amplification, P = proof, A = action PAPA.

Some say that communication effectiveness is evaluated in terms of both sales even more difficult to determine. As such (1999 387) in support of this say, htat communication effects, and sales result, response and attitudinal changes of consumers.

Other issues of investigation are used to evaluate communication effectiveness. They are determining whether the right audience is reached, which media most effectively reached that audience, if the massage is registrated, and if the message bad a favourable / unfavourable / neutral bearing on the customer predispositions toward the vendor and his product.

If the form emphases communication objectives such as influencing customers awareness levels, comprehensive or percept ions, the evaluation process often require the collection of data before and after promotion has been implemented. As a result of this Nwosu (1992:170) invincibly emphazied that, effective communication research which is done through pretesting and post – testing the advertisement.

Awareness, recall, attitude and behaviour intention are difficult concept to measure reliability. With the time obviously many promoters measures the sales realized.

Communication effectiveness as it affect branding could be seen below, branding is the use of a name, term, symbol or design or a combination nfo these to identify a product. It includes the use of brand names, trade marks and particularly all other means of product identification. Brands name is a word letter, or a goup of words or letters used to identify a product example – tura, Nature essence etc.

Branding started during the middle age, where craft guides (similar to labour union) and merchant guide formed to control the quality and quantity of production each producer had to mark his good so that out put could reflect unfavourable on other guild products and discourage future trade could be traced back to the produce. Early trademarks were also a protection to the buyer who could then know the source of the product.

Recently, brands have used mainly for identification as well as easy buying. Good brands speeds up shopping for the customer and thus reduce the marketer selling time and effort. And when custoers repeatedly purchases, by brand, the marketer is protected against competition from other firms. This can increase sales volume and reduce promoton cost.

With the proliferation of product, the role of branding has taken an added significant for the consumers the brand offers instance recognition and identification for a sought for product it also represent the promise of a consistent reliable standard of quality taste, size, durability or even emotional satisfaction. This adding volume to the product for both the consumer and manufacturer.

Brand differentiation must be built the difference in image and association elicited by product and brands in fact when consumers see a brand on the shelf, their mental files should instantly register comprehensive of a particular brand promise and inspire confidence in what to expect but this of course depend on their level of familiarity with and acceptance of the brand. Russ (1991 pg 160) highlighted that in as much as brand names are very helpful marketing tools, they should not be common space or negative in connotation and must infringe or misrepresent and that brands should be marketed according to plan, converging, product research, distribution and promotional expenditure (Robert east (1993:175)

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study is limited to investigate the impact of promotion on the marketing of elemphant extra detergent product. That marketing of elephant extra detergent product. The study will concentrate on employee in the company under study, consumer and retailer within Enugu metropolis.

Moreover, the researcher limited the scope of study, which would however stimulate further investigation in the field of marketing.

1.7 Definition of Terms

The following terminologies used in this study are hereby defined for easy understanding and general comprehension of the whole work.


This is an effect on the mind of consumer

Marketing promotion:

This is one of the marketing mix variable used by marketers in formulating marketing strategy


Is the all important set of creative human activities aimed at identifying anticipating and satisfying human needs and want through exchange as possible (Adirika 1990: 3)


This refers to an integrate plan or policy through which a business organization accomplishes it objectives


On who buys or uses a product goods and service to satisfy a need or want.


This refers to substance that removes dirt.

Band loyalty:

The attitude of a consumer to stick to a particular type of product in the fact of alternation.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one looks at the background to the problem, encompassing the research problem, objectives, research questions, significance, among other issues. Chapter two basically looks at literature review. Chapter three covers the methodological approach to be used by the study, chapter four looks at the study findings while chapter five winds up with the study conclusions and recommendations.

Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The study has highlighted that once promotional strategies such as discounted prices, demos and product samples, causes and charity activities, product giveaways and loyalty points are well implemented, the products are likely to get more sales from the prospective customers, who can henceforth come and buy those products. Moreover, this has been backed by a number of studies that have shown that it is important to ensure better promotional strategies for product sales. What matters is that inherent challenges are dealt with in time. It is therefore important to note that while this study is conclusive enough, it has shed light on the promotional strategies with respect to Elephant detergent. These strategies can still be used by all types and size of businesses—whether small or big.

5.5 Recommendations

In light of the findings of the study, below are the two types of findings: policy and practice related.

5.5.1 Recommendation for Policy

In terms of policy, the government of Nigeria needs to create a conducive environment for traders and other business persons within which to exercise the already mentioned promotional strategies. At a policy level, the government could look into taxes or levies that might be hindering these promotional activities. In addition, the government needs to improve its infrastructure such as roads, railways and communications infrastructure so as to enable these business people and paint companies access and supply their products all over Nigeria without any hindrances.

5.5.2 Recommendation for Practice

As for practice purposes, there is need for these business people and manufacturers to undertake extra courses that can help them equip with enough skills to undertake most of these promotional strategies. It is important to note that while these promotional activities are important for the growth of the business, they need patience and mastery of skills for effective implementation. In this line of thinking, there should be seminars for small traders, where manufactures train their clients or sellers on how to undertake and embrace various types of promotional activities.

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