The Effect Of Television Advertising On Sales Of Detergent, Comparing Of Viva And Sunshine

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

The Effect Of Television Advertising On Sales Of Detergent, Comparing Of Viva And Sunshine


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of television advertising on sales of detergent, comparing of viva and sunshine. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of marketing staff of Viva and sunshine detergents, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 54 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypothesis was tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that television advertising have an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent. The study also revealed that there are similarities in the television advertising strategy utilized in the promotion of viva and sunshine detergents. Therefore, television should be considered first before any other media of advertising as its influence is most exciting and to high extent influences the buying decision of the consumers. And the television advertisement of detergents should be sustained to ensure consumer’s continuous patronage. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Advertising is as diverse as its marketing parent. It occupies a very high position in the marketing configuration. Advertising is one of the sub-elements of the prviva and sunshinetion element of the marketing mix of product, price, prviva and sunshinetion and place. It is subsumed in marketing communication.

The chambers English dictionary defines advertising as the act of giving notice of something or act of giving public information about merit claimed. Also the American marketing Association defines advertising as any paid form of non-personal presentation and prviva and sunshinetion of ideas, or service by an identified sponsor. Advertising basically is a marketing tool and means of communicating the availability of products and services to the general public. Dunn and Barban (1978:4) state that almost everyone admits that advertising is a vigorous, often obstructive form of communication that influences us both directly and indirectly. In defining advertising, Dunn and Barban (1978:-8) argues that advertising is paid, non-personal communication through various media by business firms, non-profit organizations and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience. In the main, the ultimate purpose of advertising is to announce the arrival, availability, benefits and price of products or services with a view to selling it.

There are primary and selective advertising. By primary advertising we mean that type of advertising that aims at prviva and sunshineting demand for generic products or services of the entire industry or organization. On the other hand, selective advertising prviva and sunshinetes demand for a particular product of a company or firm. Another differentiating factor is that primary advertising is often used by organizations so as to attract patronage for their range of products as in the case of Unilever Nigeria plc in sponsoring say football tournaments or other sporting events. This is done in order to stimulate demand for their products by consumers.

Selective advertising can be used to maintain an established brand. Selective advertising is also called direct action advertising. For instance, the viva and sunshine detergent action advertisement during the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Network special programmes, e.g. Superstory. In such instance reference is always made about the price of the product or service so advertised.

There is also another type of advertising called institutional advertising. This type of advertising is geared towards creating favourable impression of an organization in the mind of the society or business community rather than the products or services such an organization produces. The advertising message here is centred on the organization’s name.

Advertising as an economic activity has been with us right from the ancient times. In ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome there were advertisement posters, paintings, signboards and drawings on the walls of buildings about products of different kinds (Age et al: 1982). Also during this period vendors of different products carried their wares along announcing the availability of such products just like today’s hawkers. This was advertising at its rudimentary and crude level.

Until the nineteenth century, advertising played an insignificant role in conducting of business. Business transactions were based on personal selling at this period. When Johnann Gutteberg invented the printing press in about 1440, handbills, posters and then newspapers were used to advertise goods and services. Advertising was at its miniature stage until advertisings appeared in Newspapers in America (sand age and fry Burger: 1763). But this new development was limited owing to the low level of trade. However, from 1840, the volume of advertising increased as the volume of trade increased.

When in the 1920s Radio broadcasting established its presence in the United States of America, broadcast advertising reared its head and thus enhanced trade.

About two decades after the invention of radio, television appeared and consequently increased broadcast advertising and later stole the lead from radio. Ziegler and Howard (1984: 10-11) stresses the place of television advertising in the United States of America asserting that television’s gross adverting revenues were totalling approximately seventy-five percent of broadcastings total receipts. The remaining twenty-five percent was spent on radio. This situation could be the same in other countries. Television has since then dominated the broadcast advertising, which was formally monopolized by radio.

The main purpose of advertising is to affect the psyche of the people with the sole aim of drawing them towards a particular good or service. Ikechwu Nwosu (1990) defines advertising as mass communication which is aimed at helping to sell goods, services, ideas, persons and institutions or organizations. Many modes are used in the process of advertising. Thus, we have print advertising comprising newspapers, magazines, journals, billboard, or outdoor and mail order; and broadcast advertising comprising radio, television advertising which has in a way eclipsed all other types of advertising. This is because in the television medium, sound, colour, and motion are combined which the other media lack.

Modern advertising started in Nigeria in 1929 with the establishment of West African Publicity limited (W.A.P) by United African Company (U.A.C). West African publicity concentrated in placing posters and other advertising products exported to West Africa by British manufacturers in newspapers like the Daily Times. The newspapers increased their readership thereby creating avenues for increased advertising of products.

Radio broadcasting was introduced into the country in 1932. But the impact was not felt until 1959 when the western regional government of Nigeria under the premiership of the late chief Obafemi Awolowo established the first television station in black Africa. Thus, television advertising was born. The eastern and northern regional governments followed the western region in establishing television and radio stations in 1960 and 1962 respectively. The federal government of Nigeria established her own television station in April 1962 known as the Nigerian Television Service (NTS) in Victoria Island, Lagos. Since then, there has been a steady increase of television stations in the country. According to Amechi (1991:5) as at 1991 there were about thirty-nine television stations but in the recent years there has been an increase in the number and Nigeria should have over 60 TV stations currently. Privately owned television stations like AIT, Silverbird etc have sprung and are now competing with consumer attention with the largely government owned television stations that dominate the broadcasting landscape in Nigeria.

Audience size has also increased tremendously and this in turn has increased the advertising volume. Advertisers have discovered in television a virile and viable medium for selling their goods, services and ideas as the Nigerian economy becomes more and more industrialized and complex.

Television is the fastest growing advertising medium in the world today. It also has the best appeal. Concurring to this view, Seigler and Howard (1984:17) state that most important, of course, is the visual component, which permits the transmission of sight, motion, and colour on an instantaneous basis. Through television, advertisers can demonstrate products, focusing attention on their most visually appealing attributes and emphasizing packages and corporate logos through close-up camera shots. With both visual and sound capabilities, television comes closer to the ideal of person-to-person salesmanship than any other mass medium. The uniqueness and strength of television lie in its ability to combine many of the functions performed singly by other media put together.

Television advertising can create drama, suspense and emotion. It is a powerful behaviour shaping and modifying force. Because it combines visual and auditory stimuli with movement and drama, it has the power to arrest attention, generate interest, inform and teach by illustration and example. Television advertising has a dynamic vitality and an enormous capacity to attract and hold large audiences. Thus, for television advertising to be effective and achieve its objectives, there should be information, stimulus values, and emphasis.

This is because information is news, while stimulus values provokes a customer to evaluate, judge and reach a decision to single out a particular product from all the other advertising messages surrounding them. The ultimate purpose of television advertising is to affect the way television advertising viewers think and act, their behavioural patterns, with the ultimate goal of selling a product or service. Unilever Nigeria plc, makers of blue viva and sunshine detergent as one of the leading organizations producing consumer products has employed television advertising extensively to sell its range of products.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Television as a medium of communication has gained importance in the marketing of products, services, persons, ideas, and corporate entities. It has become a prime medium with its motive force of sight, sound spectacle, colour, and motion. Yet most television viewers do not know the extent of the influence television has on them in their purchase behaviour.

The study is therefore undertaken out of the concern that television viewers in Owerri L.G.A may not be aware of the effects television advertisement has on them in their purchase of detergents such as viva and sunshine.

Recent observations have shown that detergents come under the generic name viva and sunshine. This study then will determine whether the real product, viva and sunshine, is consumed or not in Owerri urban and environs. It is not certain whether the television advertisement of viva and sunshine is responsible for this. From available literature, there has not been any attempt to find out or ascertain the effects or impact of television viewership and consumers in Owerri.

There are also the problems of establishing if the viva and sunshine detergent television advertisement has been able to tilt some potential consumer’s disposition towards viva and sunshine detergent. This is predicated on the fact that the news adjacency of the viva and sunshine television advertisement exposes it to some if not the estimated 50 million viewers of the Nigerian Television Authority.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of television advertising on sales of detergent, comparing of viva and sunshine. Other objectives of this study is to:

  1. To determine whether television advertising has an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent.
  2. To find out whether the same television advertising strategy is utilized to promote the sales of viva and sunshine detergent.
  3. To ascertain whether a significant differences exist in the extent at which viva and sunshine detergents adopts television advertising
  4. To ascertain whether a significant differences exist in the effectiveness of the television advertising strategy of viva and sunshine

1.4 Research Questions

These research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Does television advertising have an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent?
  2. Are there similarities in the television advertising strategy utilized in the promotion viva and sunshine detergent?
  3. Does any significant differences exist in the extent at which viva and sunshine detergents adopts television advertising strategy?
  4. Does any significant differences exist in the effectiveness of the television advertising strategy of viva and sunshine detergent?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:

H01: Television advertising does not have an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help acquaint the research with the vital works aspects of the marketing programmed generally and television advertising in particular. Furthermore the research will expose the likely effects personal selling has on the marketing of detergent especially viva and sunshine.

The study will produce a useful guide not only to salesmen in detergent industry but also to management in planning their day to day marketing activities. Finally, the research work will provide a basis for further research by interested scholars on the subject.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the effect of television advertising on sales of detergent, comparing of viva and sunshine. Specifically, this study focuses on finding out  whether television advertising has an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent, finding out whether the same television advertising strategy is utilized to promote the sales of viva and sunshine detergent, ascertaining whether a significant differences exist in the extent at which viva and sunshine detergents adopts television advertising strategy, and ascertaining whether a significant differences exist in the effectiveness of the television advertising strategy of viva and sunshine detergent. The respondents for this study will  be obtained from the marketing department of Viva and sunshine detergents, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Advertisement:

It is the message expressing the qualities of a particular product to the target audience.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the  review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study,  sample size determination,  sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the effect of television advertising on sales of detergent, comparing of viva and sunshine. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of television advertising on sales of detergent, comparing of viva and sunshine. The study specifically was set to determine whether television advertising has an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent, find out whether the same television advertising strategy is utilized to promote the sales of viva and sunshine detergent, ascertain whether a significant differences exist in the extent at which viva and sunshine detergents adopts television advertising strategy, and ascertain whether a significant differences exist in the effectiveness of the television advertising strategy of viva and sunshine detergent.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are marketing staff of Viva and sunshine detergents, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Television advertising have an effect on the sales of viva and sunshine detergent.
  2. There are similarities in the television advertising strategy utilized in the promotion of viva and sunshine detergents.
  3. A significant difference exist in the extent at which viva and sunshine detergents adopts television advertising strategy.
  4. A significant difference exist in the effectiveness of the television advertising strategy of viva and sunshine detergent.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Companies producing detergents should pay more attention to continuous usage of television as a medium of advertisement.
  2. Television should be considered first before any other media of advertising as its influence is most exciting and to high extent influences the buying decision of the consumers.
  3. The television advertisement of detergents should be sustained to ensure consumer’s continuous patronage.
  4. The advertisement of the product should also be carried out in other medium.

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