The Effect Of Office Technology On Secretarial Performance In The Access Bank Plc
This study was carried out to examine the effect of office technology on secretarial performance in the Access bank Plc, using selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc, find out whether there is adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc, and determine the problems associated with the use of these modern technologies by office secretary. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secretaries in selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc includes: personnel computers, Scanning machines, Photocopiers, Duplicators, Shredding machines, and telephones – Mobile And Land. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that there is adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc, Therefore, it is recommended that secretaries should be flexible and adapt to changes as they come and keep abreast of innovations in the office machines, organization, attitude and responsibilities. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Rapid changes have been taking place in all facets of human life including the office environment for decades. This is as a result of technological advancement. Every office in today’s business world, be it government, industry or other human endeavors, require facts and accurate information for quick decision-making. The office worker, including the secretary, expects certain support from the organization into which he/she is employed. This support can be technological (machines and equipment) and human. In offices of past, manager’s dictated memos and letters and secretaries typed them. Most recently, business have developed word processing centers and relied on personal computers and even electronic mail in an effort to lessen the need for secretarial support and make the employee-secretary very productive (Eze, 1995; Okute, 2004).
As a result of changes in technology, the role of secretaries in an organization has changed tremendously from that of typewriting and shorthand dictation, answering of telephone calls and processing of mails. Today’s secretaries are exposed to office technology including the internet that make work much easier and knowledge more accessible (Edwin, 2011). It is now easier to send messages by telex, electronic mails (e-mails), fax and telephones. Other office gadgets available to the secretary are photo-copy machines, duplicating machines, dictating machines, printers, among others. This is the era of computers and information technology which has become an enabler of greater convenience. Three of the most popular types of computer software programs are word processing, which help the user to write and edit memos, letters and reports, data management programs or databases, which help the user/ secretary to use long lists of data and spreadsheet programs, which handle tables and numbers (Dawson and Boladele, 1999).
Secretaries now have many technologically advanced office gadgets to ease their jobs and enhance proficiency and productivity leading to improved access to goods and services globally (Wofersohn, 2001). There are wide range of office machines and equipment which now enable secretaries to improve their performances. Such new machines take the form of electronic typewriters that have replaced the manual ones. Word processors with milt-purpose facilities, computers and other sophisticated office machines and equipment are now provided by employers. Some of the physical equipment used by secretaries includes computer communication equipment and electronic pocket organizers (Ordu, 1997). New technological equipment that has altered the procedures and technique for office functions include the computers, electronic mail/ commerce, voice mail, and the Internet.
However, these new developments brought by technological challenges require even more knowledge and skills beyond being a professional secretary. For the secretary to be abreast with the changing times, face the challenges and overcome the old ways of doing things she or he needs training requirements in recent times to help meet organizational objectives. Information technology has affected many professions in recent times. The roles of secretarial professionals have been turned around by technology. It has provided the tools that shift the role of secretaries from that of information recorders to business strategists (Appah and Emeh, Nwosu, 2013). Several other authors are of the view that the secretary has to be well equipped to meet the present challenges of a modern office.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office professional has greatly evolved. Office automation and organizational restructuring have led secretaries and administrative assistants to increasingly assume responsibilities once reserved for managerial and professional staff (Horby, 2015). Despite these changes however, the core responsibilities for secretaries and administrative assistants have remained much the same: performing and coordinating an office’s administrative activities and storing, retrieving, and integrating information for dissemination to staff and clients.
Secretaries and administrative assistants use a variety of office equipment, such as fax machines, photocopiers, scanners, and video-conferencing and telephone systems. In addition, secretaries and administrative assistants often use computers to do tasks; they create spreadsheets, compose correspondence, manage databases, and create presentations, reports, and documents using desktop publishing software and digital graphics. However, the effective use of office technologies has been hampered by notable challenges. Most secretaries have problem in their workplace because they were unable to operate these machines. Another problem encountered by secretaries is technological unemployment, which sometimes result from advancement in technology. The most common technological unemployment occurs especially when workers have no knowledge of the newly improved equipment. This problem may result to the displacement of the secretary. Furthermore, most of the machines are very costly and most small- scale organization finds it difficult to afford them.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of office technology on secretarial performance in the access bank Plc. Other aims of this study are:
- Determine the modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc.
- Find out whether there is adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc.
- Determine the problems associated with the use of these modern technologies by office secretary.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- What are the modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc?
- Is there adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc?
- What are the problems associated with the use of these modern technologies by office secretary?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: Office technology do not contribute to the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc.
- Ha: Office technology contributes to the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to business owners secretaries and to public and private organizations. Specifically This study will open the thinking of business owners to see the need of acquiring those modern communication equipment that are not available in their establishment. To private and public establishment it will expose the need of the modern communication equipment and create better awareness of the implication of automating office function. The findings will among other thing help to dispose of the superstition belief that the modern communication equipment are “the greatest enemy of men as it displaces man from the job, deny them of initiative in his job, and makes them more machines operators and destroy old division of labour” it will encourage potential secretaries to set up efforts to undertake some training on the operation of modern communication equipment in order to improve their job efficiency. Finally the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge serving as reference material for students and researcher and at most giving opportunity for further research in this field.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study generally focuses on the effect of office technology on secretarial performance in the access bank Plc. The respondent for this study will comprise of secretaries in selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. In this study we did not take into consideration the validity of vaccines as at when they were taken • Our data were collected on the premises of routine immunization, as such the study did not consider the immunization given during Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIA) • The study design is cross-sectional, so causal effect could not be established.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A secretary is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. The role can be in form of an administrative assistant or personal assistant.
Office equipment are tools required to carry out work in the office which can either be electric or manual. Some of the most common office accessories and modern equipment that are being used these days are staplers, intercom, internet, computers, printers, fax machines, photo copier, phones and folders and files etc.
Information and Communication Technology: Information and communication technologies (ICT) is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of office technology on secretarial performance in the Access bank Plc, using selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of office technology on secretarial performance in the Access bank Plc, using selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc, find out whether there is adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc, and determine the problems associated with the use of these modern technologies by office secretary.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were secretaries in selected branches of Access bank, Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The modern technology that enhances the performance of secretaries in Access bank Plc includes: personnel computers, Scanning machines, Photocopiers, Duplicators, Shredding machines, and telephones – Mobile And Land.
- There is adequate availability of office technology in Access bank Plc.
- The problems associated with the use of these modern technologies by office secretary includes: lack of good background knowledge of new technologies by secretaries, Inadequate skills, Lack of information technology facilities, Inadequate training being given to trainee secretaries, and Lack of constant and alternative power supply.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Secretaries should be flexible and adapt to changes as they come and keep abreast of innovations in the office machines, organization, attitude and responsibilities.
- There should be provision of office technologies and accessories by office manager in Access bank.
- Secretaries should attend seminars, conferences and workshops to develop them in the areas of information technologies and Microsoft office packages.
- Employers of labour should engage secretaries that are vast with technology competencies and skills in order to achieve administrative effectiveness in the organization.
- The organizations should furnish the secretary’s office with necessary equipment to enhance their effectiveness e.g. computers, printers, photocopy machine, scanner, etc.
- Secretaries are enjoined to be members of professional organizations.
- Secretaries are encouraged to attend workshops, seminars and conferences which may be self-sponsored or organization-sponsored.
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