Motivation, Human Relations And Job Performance Of Secretaries In Tertiary Institutions In Ekiti State

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Motivation, Human Relations And Job Performance Of Secretaries In Tertiary Institutions In Ekiti State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine motivation, human relations and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. The study was carried out to ascertain the human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions, find out whether secretaries in tertiary institutions posses the human relations skills required to carry out their duties effectively, determine whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions, find out whether there is a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions and investigate the extent secretaries in tertiary institutions are motivated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secretaries in some selected tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that the human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions includes: awareness skill, collaboration skill, clear communication skills, conflict management and resolution skills, constructive feedback skill. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be effective communication at all level of the organizational setup as this will enable secretaries to participate in taking decision concerning them. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The secretary’s work is based on human relations to a very large extent. Almost every task he or she performs involves other people at some stage that is, the boss, subordinates and his colleagues in the organization as a whole and even the general public at large. Harrison (2003), observes that this aspect of secretarial work requires very special qualities such as: tactfulness, sympathy, tolerance, genuine liking for people and desire to help them. The secretary’s relationship with the people will be much easier if he or she understand the reaction of human being to various situations, which may arise in the course of normal day’s business.

According to Jennings (2002), human relations involve the activities and relationship resulting from the interaction of two or more people in an organization, human relations concern the reason for the degree of motivation they posses, by definition, the secretaries occupies an important position in an office. Some of the numerous services the secretaries rendered are; to support and assist the managers as well as the directors of the company with their work, making appointment for the boss, receiving callers, receiving visitors to the organization and making telephone calls. Other secretaries perform a mite range of human and material resources and also assist the boss in implementation of policies and sometimes attending meetings on behalf of the boss. The secretary has to make a detail note of the proceedings of the entire meeting and this includes documenting the activity and the matter discussed during the meeting. The above responsibilities demands a high level of human relations.

That human relations can be pleasant and rewarding. The relationship between a secretary and co-worker, the boss and others even customers in her working environment should be very cordial in her day to day dealings. Human relations is vital because it creates avenue for people to interact with both in offices and other parastatals because it has an influence over the nature and manner with which individual work out solutions to the problems in which they are confronted with. The secretary with his or her psychological skills is also expected to understand different moods of co-workers, customers, the work conditions and how to arrest difficult situations in the office, how to get the best from his present group and how to take care of unexpected situation successfully. Hence, establishing a cordial human relations in the workplace improves secretary’s performances as it enhances their motivations towards work.

According to Mc Cornick and Tifflin (2007), Motivation can be either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that are external to the task of the job, such as pay, work condition, fringe benefits, security, and promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work. While Intrinsic motivation on the other hand are those rewards that can be termed psychological motivations and examples are opportunity to use one‘s ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation, positive recognition, and being treated in a caring and considerate manner. Managers who can motivate employees assist the organization by improving employee retention and reinforcing positive behaviours and consequently, their enduring ability to motivate workers to achieve the highest result determines the success of a business. Motivation is the intention of achieving a goal, an ability to change behaviour, that inner directing drive, leading to goal-directed behaviour towards the attaining goal. Rewards can be either non-monetary or monetary. The following is the proposed model of impact of motivation on employees‟ performance. The importance of motivation might not be obvious to everyone, its impact on the ability of secretaries to function effectively is indisputable. It is only through a well motivated organizational program that secretaries retains control and produces greater output, which will help the organization, either public or private, to conduct business properly. Motivation therefore is the activation or energization, maintaining and directing behavior towards a particular goal.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Secretaries in large institutions have been finding it very difficult to cope with the performance of their function as it regards to human relations. This has generated a lot of problems for secretaries. Some of the situations are witnessed when an intolerant boss makes a mistake in the course of his duties with the secretary, but fails to admit such mistakes; rather he costs the blames on the secretary. Struggling to meet up with the demands of these disgust executives as well as maintaining a good relationship with each other and at the same time keeping up with the demands of the job is stressful to the secretary. Again lack of fact in performing official duties by the secretary constitute a very big problem, for instance when answering phone calls, secretaries with poor relationship radiate this attitude to phone callers. This equally applied when handling client’s affairs, because some secretaries by their positions in institution do not take cognizance of the client due to inefficiency in their job. In that regards Carvel, (2010), stated, “that a problem arises when the boss finds the secretary sexually attractive”. This he says creates room for insolent secretary and an awkward office relationship now prevails.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this research is to examine motivation, human relations and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, specially the study will.

  1. Ascertain the human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions.
  2. Find out whether secretaries in tertiary institutions posses the human relations skills required to carry out their duties effectively.
  3. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions.
  4. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions.
  5. Investigate the extent secretaries in tertiary institutions are motivated.

1.4 Research Questions

To achieve the above objective, the following research questions will guide the study,

  1. What are the human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions?
  2. Does secretaries in tertiary institutions posses the human relations skills required to carry out their duties effectively?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions?
  4. Is there a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions?
  5. What is the extent secretaries in tertiary institutions are motivated?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

H01: There is no significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions.

H02: There is no significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is intended to create awareness on management of organization, regarding the need to provide good human relations in their organizations. The study will be of immense benefit to organization individual and students, it will afford business organizations the opportunity of knowing more of some of the employee wants and needs the various components of human relations. They can use and its resultant effect on productivity.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to the examination motivation, human relations and job performance of secretaries. The study will be carried out in some selected tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, where secretaries will be obtained and enrolled as the respondents for the study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following posed to be a constraint to the study.

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

However in the midst above mentioned limitation the researcher devotedly ensured that the purpose of the study was actualized.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Human Relations

human relations is the integration of people into work situations that motivates them to work together productivity, co-operatively and with economic, psychological and social satisfaction.

Motivation:

A combination of goals towards which human behaviour is directed; the process through which those goals are pursued and achieved and the social factors involved.

Job Performance:

Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.

Secretary:

A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on motivation, human relations and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on motivation, human relations and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions, find out whether secretaries in tertiary institutions posses the human relations skills required to carry out their duties effectively, determine whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions, find out whether there is a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions and investigate the extent secretaries in tertiary institutions are motivated.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent weresecretaries in some selected tertiary institutions in Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The human relations skills secretaries require for effective job performance in tertiary institutions includes: awareness skill, collaboration skill, clear communication skills, conflict management and resolution skills, constructive feedback skill.
  2. Secretaries in tertiary institutions posses the human relations skills required to carry out their duties effectively.
  3. There is a significant relationship between motivation and job performance of secretaries in tertiary institutions.
  4. There is a significant relationship between effective human relations and secretaries in-job motivation in tertiary institutions.
  5. The extent secretaries in tertiary institutions are motivated is high.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Management should encourage secretaries to go on training in human relation subject.
  2. There should be effective communication at all level of the organizational setup as this will enable secretaries to participate in taking decision concerning them.
  3. Job enrichment and job enlargement should be introduced because it makes secretaries to relate their fellow workers.
  4. Management should provide sound communication system for secretaries to ensure effective work performance
  5. Secretaries should try to protect the image of the company in public, through the practice of good human relations.

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